Journal of Ecology and Environment

pISSN 2287-8327 eISSN 2288-1220
Soil properties and molecular compositions of soil organic matter in four different Arctic regions
Retraction Note to: Major environmental factors and traits of invasive alien plants determining their spatial distribution
Comparison of detective ranavirus with major capsid protein gene from infected frogs (Pelophylax nigromaculatus and Lithobates catesbeianus) in South Korea
Distribution characteristics of Manchurian and China–Japan–Korea flora in Korean Peninsula
Editorial of special issue “Plant-pollinator network: Processes and impacts”

Current Issue

  • Abstract : Background: The Arctic permafrost stores enormous amount of carbon (C), about one third of global C stocks. However, drastically increasing temperature in the Arctic makes the stable frozen C stock vulnerable to microbial decomposition. The released carbon dioxide from permafrost can cause accelerating C feedback to the atmosphere. Soil organic matter (SOM) composition would be the basic information to project the trajectory of C under rapidly changing climate. However, not many studies on SOM characterization have been done compared to quantification of SOM stocks. Thus, the purpose of our study is to determine soil properties and molecular compositions of SOM in four different Arctic regions. We collected soils in different soil layers from 1) Cambridge Bay, Canada, 2) Council, Alaska, USA, 3) Svalbard, Norway, and 4) Zackenberg, Greenland. The basic soil properties were measured, and the molecular composition of SOM was analyzed through pyrolysis- gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (py-GC/MS).Results: The Oi layer of soil in Council, Alaska showed the lowest soil pH and the highest electrical conductivity (EC) and SOM content. All soils in each site showed increasing pH and decreasing SOC and EC values with soil depth. Since the Council site was moist acidic tundra compared to other three dry tundra sites, soil properties were distinct from the others: high SOM and EC, and low pH. Through the py-GC/MS analysis, a total of 117 pyrolysis products were detected from 32 soil samples of four different Arctic soils. The first two-axis of the PCA explained 38% of sample variation. While short- and mid-hydrocarbons were associated with mineral layers, lignins and polysaccharides were linked to organic layers of Alaska and Cambridge Bay soil.Conclusions: We conclude that the py-GC/MS results separated soil samples mainly based on the origin of SOM (plants- or microbially-derived). This molecular characteristics of SOM can play a role of controlling SOM degradation to warming. Thus, it should be further investigated how the SOM molecular characteristics have impacts on SOM dynamics through additional laboratory incubation studies and microbial decomposition measurements in the field.

    Show More
  • Abstract : Ranaviruses are a primary cause of amphibian extinctions. More consistent ranavirus-infection reports and genetic characterizations of identified viruses are urgently needed, particularly from Asian countries. The objectives of this study were to obtain the partial major capsid protein (MCP) gene sequences (506 bp) of the ranavirus responsible for infecting frogs in South Korea, as our previous research had confirmed using qPCR, and to evaluate their genetic relationships with other previously reported ranavirus sequences. Three different ranavirus MCP sequences were obtained from Pelophylax nigromaculatus and Lithobates catesbeianus. All six different types of MCP sequence from the ranavirus identified in South Korea to date belonged to the Frog virus 3 (FV3)-like virus group in the genus Ranavirus. To better understand the origin and spread of ranaviruses in South Korea, further infection reports and full genome analyses of the identified ranaviruses are needed.

    Show More
  • Research 2022-09-29 JEE 46:25

    Distribution characteristics of Manchurian and China–Japan–Korea flora in Korean Peninsula

    Nam Shin Kim1 , Chi Hong Lim1* , Jin Yeol Cha1 , Yong Chan Cho2 , Song Hie Jung2 , Shi Zhu Jin3 and Ying Nan3

    Abstract : Background: The Korean Peninsula exhibits a characteristic graded floral distribution, with northern (Manchurian flora) and southern (China–Japan–Korea flora) lineage species coexisting according to climatic and topographical characteristics. However, this distribution has been altered by climate change. To identify ecosystem changes caused by climate change and develop appropriate measures, the current ecological status of the entire Korean Peninsula should first be determined; however, analysis of the current floral distribution in North Korea has been hampered for political reasons. To overcome these limitations, this study constructed a database of floral distributions in both South and North Korea by integrating spatial information from the previously established National Ecological Survey in South Korea and geocoding data from the literature on biological distributions published in North Korea. It was then applied to analyze the current status and distribution characteristics of Manchurian and China–Japan–Korea plant species on the Korean Peninsula.Results: In total, 45,877 cases were included in the Manchurian and China–Japan–Korea floral distribution database. China–Japan–Korea species were densely distributed on Jeju-do and along the southern coast of the Korean Peninsula. The distribution density decreased as the latitude increased, and the distributions reached higher-latitude regions in the coastal areas compared with the inland regions. Manchurian species were distributed throughout North Korea, while they were densely distributed in the refugia formed in the high-elevation mountain regions and the Baekdudaegan in South Korea. In the current distribution of biomes classified according to the Whittaker method, subtropical and endemic species were densely distributed in temperate seasonal forest and woodland/ shrubland biomes, whereas boreal species were densely distributed in the boreal forest biome Korean Peninsula, with a characteristic gradation of certain species distributed in the temperate seasonal forest biome. Factor analysis showed that temperature and latitude were the main factors influencing the distribution of flora on the Korean Peninsula.Conclusions: The findings reported herein on the current floral distribution trends across the entire Korean Peninsula will prove valuable got mitigating the ecological disturbances caused by ongoing climate change. Additionally, the gathered flora data will serve as a basis for various follow-up studies on climate change.

    Show More
  • Abstract : Background: To assess the carbon sequestration capacity and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of Quercus glauca forests, we analyzed the net primary productivity (NPP), carbon storage, and carbon emission of soil in a Q. glauca forest on Jeju Island (South Korea) from 2016 to 2018.Results: The average carbon stock in the above- and below-ground plant biomass was 223.7 Mg C ha–1, while the average amount of organic carbon fixed by photosynthesis was 9.8 Mg C ha–1 yr–1, and the average NPP was 9.6 Mg C ha–1 yr–1. Stems and branches contributed to the majority of the above- and below-ground standing biomass and NPP. The average heterotrophic carbon emission from the soil was 8.7 Mg C ha–1 yr–1, while the average NEP was 1.1 Mg C ha–1 yr–1. Although the carbon stock, carbon absorption, and soil respiration values were higher than those reported in other oak forests in the world, the NEP was similar or lower.Conclusions: These results indicator that Q. glauca forests perform the role of a large carbon sink through the CO2 absorption in the plants in terms of carbon balance. And it is judged to be helpful as data for assessment of carbon storage and flux in the forests and mitigation of elevated CO2 in the atmosphere.

    Show More
  • Research 2022-09-02 JEE 46:23

    Effects of light and nutrient on flower formation and vegetative growth of Viola collina

    Hyekyung Park1# , Ga-yeon Son1# and Jae Geun Kim1,2 *

    Abstract : Background: Mixed breeding herb Viola collina Besser, which produces both chasmogamous and cleistogamous flower, has limited habitats under closed canopy and short and early flowering timing, making it relatively more vulnerable to climate change. To better understand the effect of light and nutrient on the flower formation and vegetative growth of V. collina, a mesocosm experiment was conducted. Two-by-two factorial treatments of two light conditions (100% and 60% of natural light) and two fertilizer treatment conditions (fertilized and not fertilized) were applied in the mesocosm experiment.Results: The number of flowers, including chamogamous and cleistogamous flowers, was highest (5.65/pot) under 60% light and fertilized condition and lowest (1.41/pot) under 100% light and not-fertilized condition. However, above ground vegetative growth was highest (2.89 g/pot) under 100% light and fertilized condition and lowest (2.38 g/pot) under 60% light and not-fertilized condition. Above ground biomass to belowground biomass ratio was highest (1.50) under 60% light and fertilized condition and lowest (1.26) under 100% light and fertilized condition.Conclusions: This study showed that high light and nutrient are responsible for the vegetative growth , though the effect of fertilizer was reduced due to allocation and retainment of nutrients. In addition, the low light is necessary to make flowers, especially chasmogamous flowers.

    Show More
  • Review 2022-08-19 JEE 46:22

    Tissue-cultured regeneration and ecological values in major bamboo species

    Avinash Sharma1* , Chowlani Manpoong1, Anwesha Gohain2, Himanshu Pandey3, Gompi Padu1 and Hage Aku1

    Abstract : Background: Promising specific growth regulators are employed in the tissue cultures of various bamboo species. Specific natural hardening mixtures support the acclimatization and adaptation of bamboo under protected cultivation.Results: The growth regulators like 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D), Naphthaleneacetic Acid (NAA), Thidiazuron (TDZ), 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP), Kinetin, Gelrite, Benzyl Adenine (BA), Indole Butyric Acid (IBA), Coumarin, Putrescine, Gibberellic acid (GA3), Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) has been widely used for callus induction, root regeneration and imposing plant regeneration in various species of bamboo such as Bambusa spp. and Dendrocalamus spp. Different combinations of growth regulators and phytohormones have been used for regenerating some of the major bamboo species. Natural hardening materials such as cocopeat, vermicompost, perlite, cow dung, farmyard manure, compost, soil, garden soil, and humus soil have been recommended for the acclimatization and adaptation of bamboo species. Standard combinations of growth regulators and hardening mixtures have imposed tissue culture, acclimatization, and adaptation in major bamboo species.Conclusions: Bamboo contributes to soil fertility improvement and stabilization of the environment. Bamboo species are also involved in managing the biogeochemical cycle and have immense potential for carbon sequestration and human use. This paper aims to review the various growth regulators, natural mixtures, and defined media involved in regenerating major bamboo species through in vitro propagation. In addition, the ecological benefits of safeguarding the environment are also briefly discussed.

    Show More
  • Abstract : Background: Increasing land demands for food production have led to biodiversity loss and land degradation in the Madhupur Sal forest. Reforestation activities such as agroforestry and woodlot plantation support the conservation of diversity, restoration of forest and prevention of soil erosion in degraded natural Sal forest. Knowing about these reforestation activities, this study is needed to compare the species composition, richness, and soil nutrients of these two plantation activities to the natural Sal forest in the degraded Madhupur Sal forest in Bangladesh.Results: The analysis showed that in between the reforestation activities, the highest Shannon- Wiener index (1.79), evenness (0.60) and Simpson’s index (0.79) were found in the agroforestry site compared to the woodlot plantation site. On the contrary, the highest species richness (n = 14), tree basal area (19.56 m2 ha−1, Margalef’s index (1.96) were recorded in woodlot plantation than in the agroforestry site. We observed that at 0–15 cm depth, soil organic matter (2.39%), total nitrogen (0.14%), available phosphorous (62.67 μg g−1) and exchangeable potassium (0.36 meq/100 g) in agroforestry plots were significantly higher compared to other forest sites. At topsoil (15–30 cm depth), soil organic matter (1.67%) and available phosphorous (21.09 μg g−1) were found to be higher in agroforestry site.Conclusions: Both reforestation approaches improved soil function, although woodlot plantation had the higher species richness. Therefore, plantation activities by the sustainable implementation of these two practices are the best alternative to restore the biodiversity, richness and conserve soil fertility in the Madhupur Sal forest of Bangladesh.

    Show More
  • Abstract : Background: The introduction of new living modified (LM) crops may pose a latent threat to the biodiversity of each country. Here, we used sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.) as a study system to investigate the potential for invasiveness of LM crops under different environmental conditions when released into a natural ecosystem in South Korea. We examined the seed germination, survival, and flowering of sunflowers under competition with wild plants at different sowing dates (March–December) and plot sizes (1 m × 1 m and 2 m × 2 m).Results: The germination rate showed a significant difference according to the sowing date. In addition, several sunflowers survived in plots with a high germination rate, which also led to a higher flowering rate. We found that the smaller the plot, the smaller the area available for inter-species competition, and the higher the number of surviving sunflower plants. The relative dominance and importance value of the species varied significantly between the sowing dates; in particular, sunflowers sown in March could compete with wild plants for longer than those sown on other sowing dates.Conclusions: These observations indicate that the potential for invasiveness of sunflowers differs depending on the environmental conditions and seed density at the time of release.

    Show More
  • Research 2022-07-18 JEE 46:18

    A field evaluation of two external transmitter attachment methods for small snakes

    Il-Kook Park , Hojun Jeong and Daesik Park *

    Abstract : Background: Radio-telemetry is a useful method to investigate the spatial ecology of species in the wild, by tracking the signal of a transmitter attached to an individual. The method of attaching a transmitter to a snake is representatively divided into surgical implantation, and external attachment, which latter is often used in small snake species.Results: In this study, we evaluated and compared the utility of two external attachment methods, the nylon thread method and the tape method, applied to a small grassland snake species of approximately 50 cm snout–vent length, the Slender racer (Orientocoluber spinalis), on an island in the Republic of Korea. The nylon thread method and the tape method were applied to four and five individuals, and radio-tracked for an average of eight and eleven days, respectively. The nylon thread method caused individual injury and disturbed their movement, while using the tape method, the transmitter package sometimes dropped off, but no injury or movement problems occurred.Conclusions: Considering that poor understanding of how to attach the transmitter makes it difficult to investigate the spatial ecology of small snake species, the tape method, evaluated in this study, could be applied to attach a transmitter and to study spatial ecology of such snakes.

    Show More

All Newest Articles

Current Issue

November, 2022
Vol.46

Current Issue
All Issues

Usage

  • 1,662,275 Downloads
  • 1,846 Altmetric Mentions
  • 14,525 Views

2021 citeScore 2.4

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Close ✕

Journal of Ecology and Environment

pISSN 2287-8327 eISSN 2288-1220