Abstract : Background: To assess the carbon sequestration capacity and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of Quercus glauca forests, we analyzed the net primary productivity (NPP), carbon storage, and carbon emission of soil in a Q. glauca forest on Jeju Island (South Korea) from 2016 to 2018.Results: The average carbon stock in the above- and below-ground plant biomass was 223.7 Mg C ha–1, while the average amount of organic carbon fixed by photosynthesis was 9.8 Mg C ha–1 yr–1, and the average NPP was 9.6 Mg C ha–1 yr–1. Stems and branches contributed to the majority of the above- and below-ground standing biomass and NPP. The average heterotrophic carbon emission from the soil was 8.7 Mg C ha–1 yr–1, while the average NEP was 1.1 Mg C ha–1 yr–1. Although the carbon stock, carbon absorption, and soil respiration values were higher than those reported in other oak forests in the world, the NEP was similar or lower.Conclusions: These results indicator that Q. glauca forests perform the role of a large carbon sink through the CO2 absorption in the plants in terms of carbon balance. And it is judged to be helpful as data for assessment of carbon storage and flux in the forests and mitigation of elevated CO2 in the atmosphere.
Abstract : Background: Mixed breeding herb Viola collina Besser, which produces both chasmogamous and cleistogamous flower, has limited habitats under closed canopy and short and early flowering timing, making it relatively more vulnerable to climate change. To better understand the effect of light and nutrient on the flower formation and vegetative growth of V. collina, a mesocosm experiment was conducted. Two-by-two factorial treatments of two light conditions (100% and 60% of natural light) and two fertilizer treatment conditions (fertilized and not fertilized) were applied in the mesocosm experiment.Results: The number of flowers, including chamogamous and cleistogamous flowers, was highest (5.65/pot) under 60% light and fertilized condition and lowest (1.41/pot) under 100% light and not-fertilized condition. However, above ground vegetative growth was highest (2.89 g/pot) under 100% light and fertilized condition and lowest (2.38 g/pot) under 60% light and not-fertilized condition. Above ground biomass to belowground biomass ratio was highest (1.50) under 60% light and fertilized condition and lowest (1.26) under 100% light and fertilized condition.Conclusions: This study showed that high light and nutrient are responsible for the vegetative growth , though the effect of fertilizer was reduced due to allocation and retainment of nutrients. In addition, the low light is necessary to make flowers, especially chasmogamous flowers.
Abstract : Background: Promising specific growth regulators are employed in the tissue cultures of various bamboo species. Specific natural hardening mixtures support the acclimatization and adaptation of bamboo under protected cultivation.Results: The growth regulators like 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D), Naphthaleneacetic Acid (NAA), Thidiazuron (TDZ), 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP), Kinetin, Gelrite, Benzyl Adenine (BA), Indole Butyric Acid (IBA), Coumarin, Putrescine, Gibberellic acid (GA3), Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) has been widely used for callus induction, root regeneration and imposing plant regeneration in various species of bamboo such as Bambusa spp. and Dendrocalamus spp. Different combinations of growth regulators and phytohormones have been used for regenerating some of the major bamboo species. Natural hardening materials such as cocopeat, vermicompost, perlite, cow dung, farmyard manure, compost, soil, garden soil, and humus soil have been recommended for the acclimatization and adaptation of bamboo species. Standard combinations of growth regulators and hardening mixtures have imposed tissue culture, acclimatization, and adaptation in major bamboo species.Conclusions: Bamboo contributes to soil fertility improvement and stabilization of the environment. Bamboo species are also involved in managing the biogeochemical cycle and have immense potential for carbon sequestration and human use. This paper aims to review the various growth regulators, natural mixtures, and defined media involved in regenerating major bamboo species through in vitro propagation. In addition, the ecological benefits of safeguarding the environment are also briefly discussed.
Abstract : Background: Increasing land demands for food production have led to biodiversity loss and land degradation in the Madhupur Sal forest. Reforestation activities such as agroforestry and woodlot plantation support the conservation of diversity, restoration of forest and prevention of soil erosion in degraded natural Sal forest. Knowing about these reforestation activities, this study is needed to compare the species composition, richness, and soil nutrients of these two plantation activities to the natural Sal forest in the degraded Madhupur Sal forest in Bangladesh.Results: The analysis showed that in between the reforestation activities, the highest Shannon- Wiener index (1.79), evenness (0.60) and Simpson’s index (0.79) were found in the agroforestry site compared to the woodlot plantation site. On the contrary, the highest species richness (n = 14), tree basal area (19.56 m2 ha−1, Margalef’s index (1.96) were recorded in woodlot plantation than in the agroforestry site. We observed that at 0–15 cm depth, soil organic matter (2.39%), total nitrogen (0.14%), available phosphorous (62.67 μg g−1) and exchangeable potassium (0.36 meq/100 g) in agroforestry plots were significantly higher compared to other forest sites. At topsoil (15–30 cm depth), soil organic matter (1.67%) and available phosphorous (21.09 μg g−1) were found to be higher in agroforestry site.Conclusions: Both reforestation approaches improved soil function, although woodlot plantation had the higher species richness. Therefore, plantation activities by the sustainable implementation of these two practices are the best alternative to restore the biodiversity, richness and conserve soil fertility in the Madhupur Sal forest of Bangladesh.
Abstract : Background: The introduction of new living modified (LM) crops may pose a latent threat to the biodiversity of each country. Here, we used sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.) as a study system to investigate the potential for invasiveness of LM crops under different environmental conditions when released into a natural ecosystem in South Korea. We examined the seed germination, survival, and flowering of sunflowers under competition with wild plants at different sowing dates (March–December) and plot sizes (1 m × 1 m and 2 m × 2 m).Results: The germination rate showed a significant difference according to the sowing date. In addition, several sunflowers survived in plots with a high germination rate, which also led to a higher flowering rate. We found that the smaller the plot, the smaller the area available for inter-species competition, and the higher the number of surviving sunflower plants. The relative dominance and importance value of the species varied significantly between the sowing dates; in particular, sunflowers sown in March could compete with wild plants for longer than those sown on other sowing dates.Conclusions: These observations indicate that the potential for invasiveness of sunflowers differs depending on the environmental conditions and seed density at the time of release.
Abstract : Background: Radio-telemetry is a useful method to investigate the spatial ecology of species in the wild, by tracking the signal of a transmitter attached to an individual. The method of attaching a transmitter to a snake is representatively divided into surgical implantation, and external attachment, which latter is often used in small snake species.Results: In this study, we evaluated and compared the utility of two external attachment methods, the nylon thread method and the tape method, applied to a small grassland snake species of approximately 50 cm snout–vent length, the Slender racer (Orientocoluber spinalis), on an island in the Republic of Korea. The nylon thread method and the tape method were applied to four and five individuals, and radio-tracked for an average of eight and eleven days, respectively. The nylon thread method caused individual injury and disturbed their movement, while using the tape method, the transmitter package sometimes dropped off, but no injury or movement problems occurred.Conclusions: Considering that poor understanding of how to attach the transmitter makes it difficult to investigate the spatial ecology of small snake species, the tape method, evaluated in this study, could be applied to attach a transmitter and to study spatial ecology of such snakes.
Abstract : Background: The coronavirus problem is an ecological problem stemming from a sudden change in the relationship between parasites and hosts. Ecologists judge organisms that are established out of their original territory as exotic species. Unlike in their original habitat, these exotic species become very aggressive in their newly settled habitat. Coronavirus infection damage was bigger in Europe or the United States than that in the country of its origin, China, and its neighboring countries. Therefore, coronavirus infection damage resembles the damage due to the invasive species.Results: Exotic species are found in places with similar environmental conditions to those of their origin when introduced to other ecological regions. However, there are few ecological ill effects in their place of origin, while the damage is usually severe in the ecological regions in which it is introduced. According to historical records, exotic infectious diseases, such as European smallpox and measles, also showed a similar trend and caused great damage in newly established places. Therefore, it is expected that measures to manage exotic species could be used for the prevention of exotic infectious diseases such as the coronavirus.Conclusions: Prevention comes first in the management of exotic species, and in order to come up with preventive measures, it is important to collect information on the characteristics of related organisms and their preferred environment. In this respect, ecosystem management measures such as exotic species management measures could be used as a reference to prevent and suppress the spread. To put these measures into practice, it is urgently required to establish an international integrated information network for collecting and exchanging information between regions and countries. Furthermore, a systematic ecosystem-management strategy in which natural and human environments could continue sustainable lives in their respective locations may serve as a countermeasure to prevent infectious diseases.
Abstract : Background: Epilobium hirsutum L. is designated as an endangered plant in South Ko- rea located in Asia, due to the destruction of its habitats through the development of wet- lands. Therefore, in this study, in order to find a light condition suitable for the growth and ecophysiological responses of Epilobium hirsutum L., those of this plant under treatment with various light qualities in a smart farm were measured.Results: In order to examine the changes in the physiological and growth responses of Epilobium hirsutum L. according to the light qualities, the treatment with light qualities of the smart farm was carried out using the red light: blue light irradiation time ratios of 1:1, 1:1/2, and 1:1/5 and a red light: blue light: white light irradiation time ratio of 1:1:1. As a result, the ecophysiological responses (difference between leaf temperature and atmo- spheric temperature, transpiration rate, net photosynthetic rate, intercellular CO2 partial pressure, photosynthetic quantum efficiency) to light qualities appeared differently ac- cording to the treatments with light qualities. The increase in the blue light ratio increased the difference between the leaf temperature and the atmospheric temperature and the photosynthetic quantum efficiency and decreased the transpiration rate and the inter- cellular CO2 partial pressure. On the other hand, the white light treatment increased the transpiration rate and intercellular CO2 partial pressure and decreased the temperature dif- ference between the leaf temperature and the ambient temperature and photosynthetic quantum efficiency.Conclusions: The light condition suitable for the propagation by the stolons, which are the propagules of Epilobium hirsutum L., in the smart farm, is red, blue and white mixed light with high net photosynthetic rates and low difference between leaf temperature and atmospheric temperature.
Abstract : Background: The mango is one of the essential fruit trees for the economy of Thailand. Mango pollination relies primarily on insects. Other external forces, such as wind, are less efficient since pollen is sticky and aggregating. There is only one report from Thailand on the use of bees as mango pollinators. The study of the behavior and pollination efficiency of honey bees (Apis mellifera) and stingless bees (Tetragonula laeviceps species complex) was conducted in Nam Dokmai mango plantings in Phrao and Mae Taeng districts, Chiang Mai province, between February and March 2019.Results: Our results reveal that the honey bees commenced foraging earlier than the stingless bee. The number of flowers visited within 1 minute by honey bees was higher than that visited by stingless bees. The average numbers of honey bees and stingless bees that flew out of the hive per minute from 7 a.m. and 6 p.m. in the Phrao district were 4.21 ± 1.62 and 9.88 ± 7.63 bees/min, respectively, i.e., higher than those observed in Mae Taeng, which were 3.46 ± 1.13 and 1.23 ± 1.20 bees/min, respectively. The numbers of fruits per tree were significantly higher in the honey bee and stingless bee treatments (T1 and T2) than in the open pollination treatment (T3). The number of fruits between T1 and T2 treatments was not different. In the pollinator exclusion treatment (T4), no fruit was produced. Fruit size factors were not significantly different among T1, T2, and T3 treatments.Conclusions: Our results showed that insect pollination is crucial for mango production, especially with the Nam Dokmai variety in Northern Thailand. As pollinator exclusion treatment showed no fruit set, and pollinator treatment significantly increased the fruit sets compared to open access plots, a managed pollinator program would benefit the mango growers for better productivity. Both the honey bee and the stingless bee were shown to be effective as pollinators.
Abstract : Background: Bamboo forests provides benefits for nature and the welfare of the people of Turen in Malang Regency and Sumbermujur in Lumajang Regency. They interact with the forest to live through the development of forest potential based on local wisdom. This is believed to prevent various adverse impacts on the forest. Local wisdom is related to beliefs or/and taboos, ethics and rules, techniques and technology, as well as forest/ land management traditions carried out by the community in building, managing forests, and Turen springs in Malang Regency and Sumbermujur in Lumajang Regency. Therefore, it is important to study the potential of bamboo forests in Turen and Sumbermujur for ecotourism, the development of bamboo forest ecotourism in Turen and Sumbermujur based on local wisdom, and the potential of bamboo forests in Turen and Sumbermujur in sustainable spring conservation.Results: Bamboo forest ecotourism has become an attractive tourist attraction. It is also beneficial for environmental conservation and the welfare of the surrounding community. The potential of bamboo forests in ecotourism development consists of various types of old bamboo that are fertile which offer environmentally friendly tourism activities by prioritizing aspects of nature conservation and socio-cultural empowerment of the local community. This cannot be separated from the belief that bamboo has supernatural powers (as a protector), so they do not dare to take or damage the existing bamboo. This behavior has a positive impact on springs that are still sustainable.Conclusions: Therefore, the charm of the bamboo forest is a potential that can be developed through ecotourism based on local wisdom. The development of bamboo forest ecotourism based on local wisdom is able to meet the living needs of the surrounding community.
Abstract : Background: In northern Thailand, the longan flower is the principal nectar source for honey production. Microorganisms play a critical function in the agricultural ecology. The morphological characteristics of fungal species found in longan pollen were studied. Aspergillus spp. were found to be invertase-producing strains and were employed in the longan syrup production process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of invertase-added longan syrup on the adult honey bee population numbers that were fed by this syrup for 16 weeks.Results: Different fungal species were found in longan pollen samples. Aspergillus was the main genus, with three predominant sections: Nigri, Flavi, and Terrei. Other isolated species were Trichoderma spp., Rhizopus spp., Neurospora spp., Chaetomium spp., Fusarium spp. and Penicillium spp. However, Aspergillus spp. is the only fungal species that produces the enzyme invertase. The invertase-producing strains belonging to the Aspergillus section Nigri were found to be A. niger LP5 with an optimum activity at pH 6.0 and 60°C. When A. niger LP5 invertase was used for longan syrup processing, the highest levels of glucose (3.45%) and fructose (2.08%) were found in invertase added longan syrup (C), while fresh (A) and boiled longan syrup (B) had lower contents of both sugars. The sucrose content was detected in (A) at 4.25%, while (B) and (C) were at 4.02% and 3.08%, respectively. An appropriate amount of sugar to feed and maintain the honey bee population was considered. The data showed no statistically significant differences between the two selected forms of longan syrup compared to the sugar syrup examined by the adult honey bee population.Conclusions: The main species of isolated fungi from longan pollen were Aspergillus spp. The discovery of an invertase-producing strain of A. niger LP5 has enabled its application for enzyme utilization in the invert sugar preparation process. The adult worker bee populations fed by longan syrup from both boiled and invertase-added sources showed an increasing trend. Artificial syrup made from longan fruit to feed honey bees when natural food sources are limited can be applied.
Daniel Bisrat1,2* and Chuleui Jung1,3
Jyoti Khatri-Chettri1 , Maan Bahadur Rokaya2,3 and Bharat Babu Shrestha1*
Jyoti Khatri-Chettri1 , Maan Bahadur Rokaya2,3 and Bharat Babu Shrestha1*
Daniel Bisrat1,2* and Chuleui Jung1,3
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