Journal of Ecology and Environment

pISSN 2287-8327 eISSN 2288-1220


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Published online January 17, 2017

Journal of Ecology and Environment (2017) 41:01

© The Ecological Society of Korea.

Newly recorded species of the genus Synura (Synurophyceae) from Korea

Bok Yeon Jo1 and Han Soon Kim1

Department of Biology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, South Korea

Correspondence to:Han Soon Kim

Received: August 1, 2016; Accepted: November 19, 2016

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.



Species in the heterokont genus Synura are colonial and have silica scales whose ultrastructural characteristics are used for classification. We examined the ultrastructure of silica scales and molecular data (nuclear SSU rDNA and LSU rDNA, and plastid rbcL sequences) to better understand the taxonomy and phylogeny within the section Petersenianae of genus Synura. In addition, we report the first finding of newly recorded Synura species from Korea.>


We identified all species by examination of scale ultrastructure using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). Three newly recorded species from Korea, Synura americana, Synura conopea, and Synura truttae were described based on morphological characters, such as cell size, scale shape, scale size, keel shape, number of struts, distance between struts, degree of interconnections between struts, size of base plate pores, keel pores, base plate hole, and posterior rim. The scales of the newly recorded species, which belong to the section Petersenianae, have a well-developed keel and a characteristic number of struts on the base plate. We performed molecular phylogenetic analyses based on sequence data from three genes in 32 strains (including three outgroup species). The results provided strong statistical support that the section Petersenianae was monophyletic, and that all taxa within this section had well-developed keels and a defined number of struts on the base plate.>


The phylogenetic tree based on sequence data of three genes was congruent with the data on scale ultrastructure. The resulting phylogenetic tree strongly supported the existence of the section Petersenianae. In addition, we propose newly recorded Synura species from Korea based on phylogenetic analyses and morphological characters: S. americana, S. conopea, and S. truttae.

Keywords: Synura americana , S. conopea , S. truttae , Morphology, Ultrastructure, Scale, Molecular phylogeny, Taxonomy

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Journal of Ecology and Environment

pISSN 2287-8327 eISSN 2288-1220