Journal of Ecology and Environment

pISSN 2287-8327 eISSN 2288-1220


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Published online October 24, 2016

Journal of Ecology and Environment (2016) 40:07

© The Ecological Society of Korea.

Distribution and attachment characteristics of Sida crystallina (O.F. Müller, 1776) in lentic freshwater ecosystems of South Korea

Jong-Yun Choi1, Kwang-Seuk Jeong2,3, Seong-Ki Kim4, Se-Hwan Son1 and Gea-Jae Joo2

National Institute of Ecology, Seo-Cheon Gun, South Korea; Department of Biological Sciences, Pusan National University, Busan, South Korea; Institute of Environmental Technology and Industry, Pusan National University, Busan, South Korea; Nakdong River Environment Research Center, Goryeong-Gun, South Korea

Correspondence to:Jong-Yun Choi

Received: November 18, 2015; Accepted: June 24, 2016

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.



Macrophytes are commonly utilised as habitat by epiphytic species; thus, complex macrophyte structures can support high diversities and abundances of epiphytic species. We tested the hypothesis that the presence of aquatic macrophytes is an important factor determining Sida crystallina (O.F. Müller, 1776) distribution.>


An ecological survey was conducted in 147 lentic freshwater bodies. S. crystallina was frequently observed, and its density was strongly associated with macrophyte abundance. S. crystallina was found on emergent plant species such as Phragmites australis and Paspalum distichum, attached to the stem surfaces by adhesive substances secreted by the nuchal organ. Thus, S. crystallina was more strongly attached to macrophytes than to other epiphytic cladoceran species. We found higher densities of S. crystallina in filtered water with increased macrophyte shaking effort (i.e. 10, 20, 40, or 80 times). S. crystallina attachment was not related to fish predation. Stable isotope analysis showed that S. crystallina utilises epiphytic organic matter (EOM) on macrophytes as a food source.>


Consequently, S. crystallina seems to have a strong association with species-specific macrophyte biomass than with other cladoceran species, which may contribute to this species’ predominance in various freshwater ecosystems where macrophytes are abundant.

Keywords: Sida crystallina , Aquatic macrophytes, Attachment characteristics, Stable isotope analysis, Lentic freshwater ecosystems

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Journal of Ecology and Environment

pISSN 2287-8327 eISSN 2288-1220