Journal of Ecology and Environment

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Published online August 19, 2022
https://doi.org/10.5141/jee.22.044

Journal of Ecology and Environment (2022) 46:22

© The Ecological Society of Korea.

Tissue-cultured regeneration and ecological values in major bamboo species

Avinash Sharma1* , Chowlani Manpoong1, Anwesha Gohain2, Himanshu Pandey3, Gompi Padu1 and Hage Aku1

1Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Arunachal University of Studies, Namsai 792103, India
2Faculty of Science, Arunachal University of Studies, Namsai 792103, India
3Division of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research, Lucknow 226005, India

Correspondence to:Avinash Sharma
E-mail avinashcau@gmail.com

Received: June 10, 2022; Revised: July 16, 2022; Accepted: July 22, 2022

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Background: Promising specific growth regulators are employed in the tissue cultures of various bamboo species. Specific natural hardening mixtures support the acclimatization and adaptation of bamboo under protected cultivation.
Results: The growth regulators like 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D), Naphthaleneacetic Acid (NAA), Thidiazuron (TDZ), 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP), Kinetin, Gelrite, Benzyl Adenine (BA), Indole Butyric Acid (IBA), Coumarin, Putrescine, Gibberellic acid (GA3), Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) has been widely used for callus induction, root regeneration and imposing plant regeneration in various species of bamboo such as Bambusa spp. and Dendrocalamus spp. Different combinations of growth regulators and phytohormones have been used for regenerating some of the major bamboo species. Natural hardening materials such as cocopeat, vermicompost, perlite, cow dung, farmyard manure, compost, soil, garden soil, and humus soil have been recommended for the acclimatization and adaptation of bamboo species. Standard combinations of growth regulators and hardening mixtures have imposed tissue culture, acclimatization, and adaptation in major bamboo species.
Conclusions: Bamboo contributes to soil fertility improvement and stabilization of the environment. Bamboo species are also involved in managing the biogeochemical cycle and have immense potential for carbon sequestration and human use. This paper aims to review the various growth regulators, natural mixtures, and defined media involved in regenerating major bamboo species through in vitro propagation. In addition, the ecological benefits of safeguarding the environment are also briefly discussed.

Keywords: bamboo regeneration, carbon sequestration, climate change, growth regulators, tissue culture

Bamboo is called ‘green gold’ and “poor man’s timber” and is classified in the subfamily Bambusoideae of the Poaceae family. Bamboo is a woody, evergreen, perennial plant that consists of complex permanent tissues of phloem parenchyma, phloem fiber, and bast fiber (Liese and Köhl 2018). It has over 1,000 species in the world, of which 20 species are the most popular for various purposes. The common species found globally are Arundinaria spp., Bambusatra spp., Bambusa heterostachya (Munro) Holttum., Bambusa nutans Wall. ex Munro., Bambusa oldhamii Munro., Bambusa pervariabilis McClure., Bambusa chungii McClure., Dendrocalamus hookeri Munro., Dendrocalamus membranaceous Munro., Gigantochloa balui K.M. Wong., Gigantochloa hasskarliana Kurz., Oxytenanthera spp., Lingania spp., Phyllostachys glauca McClure., Schizostavhyum spp., and Dendrocalamus brandisii Munro. (Schröder 2019). The commercial species of India are Dendrocalamus Brandisii, Dendrocalamus giganteus Wall. ex Munro., Dendrocalamus hamiltonii Nees, Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxb.) Nees., Melocanna baccifera (Roxb.) Kurz., Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold and Zucc., Bambusa pallida, Bambusa polymorpha Munro., Bambusa tulda Roxb., and Bambusa nutans Wall. ex Munro. (Tripathi 2008). China, Brazil, Australia, Mexico, the USA, Venezuela, India, Colombia, Panama, Japan, Vietnam, Thailand, France, the UK, etc. are the major countries well-known for producing bamboo species (Canavan et al. 2016). India ranks second in bamboo production, followed by China. The production of bamboo has been estimated at 3.23 million tonnes in India, and the northeastern states, viz., Manipur, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura, and Arunachal Pradesh, are the highest producers of bamboo (Kumar et al. 2014; Lahiry 2018).

The exploitation of the bamboo species arises from the value-added product formation and income generation in the modern era. Bamboo raw material produces fiber and is used in building roads and bridges, preparing clothes, jewelry design, fuel consumption, textiles, utensils, tableware, and furniture (Econation 2018). Bamboo falls under nontimber forest produce and does not require the external application of water and fertilizers. Bamboo fiber strain strength is 28,000 per square inch, and the steel strain strength is 23,000 per square inch. The stress capacity of bamboo is two-fold greater than steel (Sabbir et al. 2011). The raw material of bamboo has applications in the product manufacturing of several industry sectors, such as cups, baskets, nets, bags, mats, hats, lanterns, pencils, match boxes, lampshades, fences, edible shoots, raw shoots, furniture, crafts, woolen threads, clothes, bridges, jewelry, sheets, paper nappies, bone medicine, fiber, tableware, utensils, drugs, panels, floors, and agricultural implements. The demand for bamboo has been rising in the global market (Sharma et al. 2020).

Conventional breeding has not emerged as a great achievement because of the non-vegetative phase and irregular flowering. Bamboo produces a huge number of seeds after a long life cycle, with most of the seeds being nonviable (Suwal et al. 2020). Thus, complementary methods involved in producing desired clones in a standard time period, species improvement, and germplasm conservation in bamboo are in vitro culture techniques, such as micropropagation, auxiliary bud propagation, rhizogenesis, etc. (Mudoi et al. 2014; Verma and Mishra 2018). Plant tissue culture technique is useful to obtain large bamboo populations from desired species. Bamboo tissue cultures were first experimented with by Alexander and Rao (1968) in Dendrocalamus strictus. Several methods, such as adventitious shoot bud methods, axillary buds, and somatic embryogenesis, were tested in the bamboo species.

The conventional breeding method takes more time for the crop improvement of bamboo. Experts counter male sterility problems, embryo disruptions, and seed-setting problems in the improvement of the bamboo plant. Asexual propagation methods such as offset cutting and rhizome cutting produce cloned bamboo plants but encounter low phenotypic growth, low gene frequency, long flowering cycles, seed sterility, low seed viability, and bulk cutting problems (Bakshi et al. 2015). The morphological and reproductive growth of the bamboo plant takes 40–60 years. Several researchers have emphasized efficient biotechnological methods such as micropropagation, floral propagation, organogenesis, and somatic embryogenesis for bamboo plant improvement. Juvenile explants, zygotic embryos, seeds, seedlings, nodal buds, and nodal cuttings successfully facilitated shoot and root regeneration and plant regeneration in several species of bamboo (Brar et al. 2013). Several species of bamboo, such as Bambusa arundinacea (Retz.) Willd., Bambusa atra, Bambusa balcooa Roxb., Bambusa bambos (L.) Voss., Bambusa bambos var. gigantean, Bambusa edulis Carriere., Bambusa glaucescens (Willd.) Munro., Bambusa nutans, Bambusa tulda, Bambusa 3entricose McClure., Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. Ex J.C.Wend., Dendrocalamus asper (Schultes) Heyne., Dendrocalamus giganteus Wall. Ex Munro., Dendrocalamus hamiltonii, Dendrocalamus hookeri Munro., Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro., Dendrocalamus strictus, Guadua angustifolia Kunth., Thyrsostachys oliveri Gamble., and Dendrocalamus membranaceus, successfully completed in vitro plant regeneration through plant tissue culture techniques (Verma and Mishra 2018).

Growth regulators are an imperative factor in the internal and external morphogenesis of plants. They functions naturally, as well as synthetically, for enhancing the phases of growth in plants (Zahid et al. 2021). They govern in adverse, as well as normal, conditions. Growth regulators with or without combinations promoting naturally morphological and anatomical growth in plants through gene regulations and expressions were discovered by Jacob Monad (Sabagh et al. 2021). Growth regulators maintained acclimatization and adaptation in plants through the biosynthetic pathway (Wang et al. 2020a). Growth regulators proliferated permanent and meristematic tissue systems in plants through the biosynthetic pathway (Moon et al. 2015). Various synthetic growth regulators were formulated for conducting tissue cultures in plants (Khan et al. 2020). Synthetic growth regulators were the key factor in the chemical compositions of media (Hameg et al. 2020). Growth regulators induced callus formation and regenerates plantlets. The combination and noncombination of growth regulators facilitated callus induction and regeneration in plants (Ikeuchi et al. 2013). Growth regulators with or without combination with variable concentrations have conducted callus induction and regeneration in plants (Ming et al. 2019; Ye et al. 2017).

Plants uptake nutrients and water with the interventions of metabolic activities (Mundim and Pringle 2018). Plants and seedlings were acclimatized and adapted in open fields with water and nutrient movement (Hussain et al. 2012). The growth and development in plants were facilitated with the intervention of climatic factors, soil–water interactions, and element movement (Elbasiouny et al. 2022). Developed tissue-cultured plants were acclimatized and adapted with standard soil ingredients and controlled climatic factors in protected cultivations (Hazarika 2003). Several soil mixtures, such as cocopeat, vermicompost, perlite, cow dung, Farm Yard Manure (FYM), compost, soil, and garden soil were applied to the tissue-cultured plants for growth enhancement and nutrient enrichment (Teixeira Da Silva et al. 2017). Soil ingredients and controlled climatic factors of protected cultivations both created acclimatization and adaptation in tissue-cultured plants (Hazarika et al. 2006; Singh et al. 2021).

Bamboo governs an imperative role in the maintenance of climatic factors (Kang et al. 2022). Bamboo sequesters variable carbon and has a different growing period (Bradshaw 2012). The plant provides a habitat to flora and fauna, forbids land degradation, and maintains the soil system (Smith et al. 2015). It also regulates the biogeochemical cycle and atmospheric cycle (Dusenge et al. 2019) by maintaining concentrations of carbon dioxide through carbon sequestration and temperature variation in the environment (Akwada and Akinlabi 2016; Gray and Brady 2016; Lu et al. 2019; Song et al. 2020; Taub 2010; Xu et al. 2020).

The plant growth regulator induces direct and indirect regeneration in bamboo species to compensate for species loss and conservation. The standard growth regulator emerges in micropropagated plants in a specific time period. The cloned plants acclimatize and adapt to protected cultivation with controlled climatic factors. The hardened plants grow in both barren and nonbarren land for controlling climatic factors and maintaining the ecosystem. The acclimatized plants drive raw materials development and post-harvest product formation sustainably. The acclimatized plants are involved in carbon sequestration, biogeochemical cycle stabilization, and climate loss, and they construct an evergreen ecosystem in their surroundings.

Tissue culturing in bamboo is a broad field, which includes micropropagation, floral propagation, organogenesis, somatic embryogenesis, zygotic embryo development, nodal buds, and nodal cutting. The development of a healthy plant depends upon the quantity and ratio of mixtures in the growing media and their bio-physico-chemical characteristics. This study’s scope is, therefore, limited to the use of various growth regulators, natural mixtures, and defined media for major bamboo species, which tend to play a crucial role in the in vitro propagation of bamboo and the development of low-cost tissue culture strategies. In addition, the literature on the ecological value and environmental significance of major bamboo species have also been reviewed. The main objectives were to understand the growth regulator interactions and time taken in regeneration, mixture uses and time taken in hardening and the ecological values of some major bamboo species.

Growth regulators are an important factor in the chemical compositions of media and tissue culture. They stimulate plant material for callus induction and regeneration. The combination or noncombination of growth regulators naturally enhances cell multiplication, growth, and development in a plant (Fig. 1) (Abha Manohar et al. 2022; Bidabadi and Jain 2020). Growth regulators with or without combination with variable concentrations were applied in a species of bamboo for morphological and anatomical growth through gene regulation (Suwal et al. 2021). Specific explant cells and specific explant tissues create a stagnant or homeostasis state in the cell organelle system, transit metabolism, and metabolic pathways in the immobilized nutrient media. The specific explant cells and specific explant tissues induce callus formation with the intervention of auxin growth regulator in the immobilized nutrient media. The calluses contain induced embryonic-determined cells (IEDCs) to stimulate embryo formation. The calluses containing IEDCs are inoculated into the auxin; cytokinin growth regulators ration enriched media for the root and shoot regeneration. The repressor protein expresses the ipt3 (Isopentenyl transferase 3) log1, log4, and log5 (lonely guy 1/4/5) genes for shoot regeneration and wox5 (wuschel-related homeobox 5) and shr (short root) genes for root regeneration (Fig. 2). The standard growth regulator with or without combinations with variable concentrations for the tissue culture of classified bamboo species are shown in Table 1 (Abha and Sunila 2021; Amiri and Mohammadi 2021; Bordoloi et al. 2018; Choudhary et al. 2022; Devi and Sharma 2009; Gusmiaty et al. 2020; Khare et al. 2021; Li et al. 2021; Negi and Saxena 2011; Ornellas et al. 2021; Rajput et al. 2021; Sharma and Sarma 2011; Waikhom and Louis 2014).

Table 1 . Growth regulators and durations of regeneration for major bamboo species.

Sl. No.Bamboo speciesRegionsExternal plantGrowth regulatorsDurations of regenerationReferences
Bambusa species
1Bambusa nutans wall ex. Munro.Jorhat1-1/2-year nodal explantShoot: 1 mg/L BAPShoot: 20–25 daysAmiri and Mohammadi 2021
Root: 2 mg/L NAARoot: 30–35 days
2Bambusa balcooaJagirod, AssamNodes containing axillary budsShoot: 1–1.5 mg/L BAPShoot: 3 weeksSharma and Sarma 2011
Root: 3.5–4 mg/LRoot: 15–20 days
3Bambusa balcooaGual Pahari, HaryanaNodal segmentsShoot: 4.4 mg/L BAP, 2.32 mg/L kinetin, and 0.2% w/v Gelrite with 6.6 mg/L BAP, 2.32 mg/L Kinetin, 2.5% coconut water, and 100 mg/L myo-inositolShoot: 3 weeksNegi and Saxena 2011;
4Bambusa tuldaTNB College campus–Bhagalpur, BiharNodes containing axillary budsShoot: 1 mg/L BAPShoot: 5–6 weeksChoudhary et al. 2022
5Bambusa balcooaSaptari district, NepalNodal segmentsShoot: 4.4–26.44 mg/L BAPShoot: 35 daysSuwal et al. 2020
6Bambusa nutansThailand and IndiaNodal shoot segmentShoot: 0.25 mg/L NAA and 0.25 mg/L TDZ; 1 mg/L NAA and 0.5 mg/L TDZShoot: 2 weeksRajput et al. 2021
Dendrocalamus species
7Dendrocalamus stocksii MunroTNB College campus–Bhagalpur, BiharNodes containing axillary budsShoot: 2.5 mg/L BAPShoot: 5–6 weeksChoudhary et al. 2022
Dendrocalamus hamitoniiRain Forest Research Institute, JorhatSingle nodal cuttingsShoot: 1 mg/L BAP and 0.25 mg/L TDZShoot: 6 weeksRajput et al. 2021
Root: 5 mg/L IBA, 10 mg/L coumarin, and 75 mg/L putrescineRoot: 3 weeks
8Dendrocalamus asper, Dendrocalamus hamiltonii, and Dendrocalamus falcatumArid Forest Research Institute, JodhpurNodal segments containing single axillary budShoot: 10–50 μM BAPShoot: 4 weeksBordoloi et al. 2018
9Dendrocalamus asperHasanuddin University, MakassarNodal shoot segmentShoot: 3 ppm TDZShoot: 60 daysLi et al. 2021
10Dendrocalamus asperPardinho, BrazilYoung inflorescence (pre-anthesis stages)Shoot: 0 mg/L, 4.5 mg/L, 9 mg/L, and 18 mg/L 2, 4-D with 9 mg/L cytokininShoot: 39 daysGusmiaty et al. 2020
11Dendrocalamus hamiltoniiLNMU Darbhanga; BiharSingle nodal segmentShoot: 1.5 mg/L BA and 1 mg/L BAShoot: 3–5 weeksOrnellas et al. 2021
Root: 1 mg/L IAA, IBA, and NAARoot: 3 weeks
14Dendrocalamus strictusIGKV, RaipurSingle nodal segmentShoot: 4 mg/L NAA and 2 mg/L KinetinShoot: 15–20 daysAbha and Sunila 2021
Root: 4 mg/L NAA
15Dendrocalamus sericeus MunroThailandNodal segmentsShoot: 1 mg/L NAA and 2 mg/L KinetinShoot: 8 weeksKhare et al. 2021
Root: 2 weeks
Edible bamboo
16Arundinaria callosaBishnupur District of ManipurNodal shoot explantsShoot: 0.1–15 mg/L BAShoot: 2–8 weeksDevi and Sharma 2009
17B. tulda and M. bacciferaBotanical Survey of India (BSI), KolkataNodal segments containing axillary budsShoot: 2 mg/L kinetin and mg/L BAPShoot: 45 daysWaikhom and Louis 2014
Root: 3 mg/L IBA, 10 mg/L coumarin, and 3% sucroseRoot: 25 days

BSl: Botanical Survey of India; TNB: Tilka Manjhi Bhagalpur University; LNMU: Lalit Narayan Mithila University; IGKV: Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya; BAP: 6-Benzylaminopurine; NAA: Naphthaleneacetic Acid; TDZ: Thidiazuron; 2, 4-D: 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; BA: Benzyl Adenine; IAA: Indole Acetic Acid; IBA: Indole Butyric Acid.



Figure 1. Micropropagation and ecosystem values of bamboo species.

Figure 2. Gene regulations in regeneration of bamboo species.

Bambusa species

The center of origin of Bambusa balcooa is India. The height of Bambusa balcooa is 25 m, and it is 150 mm in thickness. It has a flower period of 35–42 years, grows in drought-resistant regions, has high fiber strength, and is involved in industry construction (Krishnakumar et al. 2017). Bambusa nutans is distributed in India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, and Thailand. It is 600–1,200 cm long, 40–70 mm in diameter, has a flower period of 35 years, and has applications in pole fencing, basket and mat preparation, paper development, and cooking (young shoots) (Benton 2015).

The individual effects of 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) include cell division, shoot length elongation, and shoot formation, and the individual effects of Naphthaleneacetic Acid (NAA) promote cell division and root emergence in bamboo species (Amiri and Mohammadi 2021). Solidified mannitol salt (MS) agar medium containing 1 mg/L BAP produced shootlets in 20–25 days, and rootlets appeared in 30–35 days in MS medium containing 2 mg/L NAA from sterilized 1-1/2 year nodal explants of Bambusa nutans wall ex. Munro of Jorhat, Assam (Sharma and Sarma 2011). Growth regulator of 1–1.5 mg/L BAP induced shoot regeneration, whereas 3.5–4 mg/L induced root regeneration in Bambusa balcooa. The shoot regeneration was completed in 3 weeks and root regeneration in 15–20 days (Negi and Saxena 2011). The cell division and cell proliferation enhanced the shoot length and shoot multiplication with BAP in Bambusa balcooa. The numbers of cells were also enhanced by NAA, and the root organ was penetrated by the metabolic activity of NAA growth regulators. The combination of 4.4 mg/L BAP, 2.32 mg/L kinetin, and 0.2% w/v Gelrite with 6.6 mg/L BAP, 2.32 mg/L kinetin, 2.5% coconut water, and 100 mg/L myo-inositol facilitated shoot regeneration in 3 weeks (Bordoloi et al. 2018). The kinetin conducted cell division and cell proliferation in nodal explants in Bambusa balcooa, and BAP enhanced the number of shoots in Bambusa balcooa. The comprehensive interaction of the growth regulators of BAP and kinetin influenced the cell cycle and organ formation. The coconut water was incorporated in the cell division, and myo-inositol stimulated explant material for conducting cell breaking. The tissue cultures in bamboo species were completed with a growth regulator, such as NAA, Indole Acetic Acid (IAA), BAP, kinetin, or 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D) (Arya and Arya 2015). The hormonal interaction of 0.5 mg/L Thidiazuron (TDZ) and 2 mg/L Kinetin induced shootlets, and the standard interaction of 1 mg/L Indole Butyric Acid (IBA), 0.5 mg/L kinetin, and 0.1 g/L aconitase imposed root regeneration in Bambusa nutans. The action of 1 mg/L NAA and 0.5 mg/L TDZ produced a somatic embryo in Bambusa balcooa. The combination of TDZ and kinetin conducted cell division, shoot elongation, and shoot multiplication in Bambusa nutans. The metabolic activity of 2, 4-D induced callus induction in the plant material of Bambusa nutans (Choudhary et al. 2022). The individual growth regulator of 1 mg/L BAP produced multiple numbers of shoots in Bambusa tulda Roxb. in 5–6 weeks. The concentration in the range of 1–2.5 mg/L enhanced the shoot length and the number of shoots. BAP and TDZ facilitated cell division, shoot elongation, and shoot formation. The shoot regeneration was higher in response to the TDZ growth regulator (Sevik and Guney 2013). The single growth regulator concentration of 4.4–26.44 mg/L BAP developed a greater shoot number and increased the shoot length in Bambusa balcooa, and the single treatment of 2.69–32.26 mg/L NAA emerged rootlets in Bambusa balcooa in 35 days. The combination of 2 mg/L 2, 4-D and coconut water induced embryogenic calluses, and the developed calluses imposed shoot regeneration in 2 weeks using 0.25 mg/L NAA and 0.25 mg/L TDZ with 1 mg/L NAA and 0.5 mg/L TDZ in Bambusa nutans. The coconut water was enriched with cytokinins and had features of cell division, cell proliferation, and cell multiplication. The growth regulator 2, 4-D had a characteristic of callus induction. The mutual effect of TDZ and NAA incurred cell division, cell proliferation, and cell multiplication, and TDZ had an action property of shoot elongation and shoot multiplication (Rajput et al. 2021).

The growth regulator 2, 4-D encouraged callus induction in the Bambusa species. The combination of NAA and TDZ with BAP, kinetin, and Gelrite or BAP, kinetin, coconut water, and myo-inositol, as well as the noncombination of NAA and TDZ imposed plant regeneration in Bambusa species. The effect of specific combinations and noncombinations of growth regulators was clearly observed in the Bambusa species within a precise time period (Venkatachalam et al. 2015).

Dendrocalamus species

Dendrocalamus strictus is cultivated in India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, and Cuba. It is 6–18 m in height, 2.5–12 cm in diameter, and is widely used for house frames, rafters, tent poles, concrete reinforcement, walls, scaffolding, and lance shafts (Venkatachalam et al. 2015). Dendrocalamus hamitonii is grown in India, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, Nepal, Pakistan, and eastern China. It is 15–18 m in height, 12–15 cm in diameter, has 3–4-year flower period, and is well-known for protecting tea plantations as a windbreak, as well as for its use in house and bridge construction, household utensil preparation, paper preparation, chairs, basket and mat development, cooking and pickling (young shoots), etc. (Bagade et al. 2021). Dendrocalamus asper is planted in India, Sri Lanka, southwest China, and southeast Asia. It is 15–20 m in height, 3.5–15 cm in diameter, has a 60-year flower period, and is used in spice preparation and building construction (Bhandawat et al. 2017). Dendrocalamus sinicus is the largest bamboo species in the world at 46 m in height and 37 cm in diameter; with a shorter flower period, it is recommended in the preparation of furniture, construction, and the paper and pulp industry (Kumar et al. 2017).

The individual growth regulator of 2.5 mg/L BAP multiplied the number of shoots in Dendrocalamus stocksii Munro in 5–6 weeks (Das et al. 2018). The action of 1 mg/L BAP and 0.25 mg/L TDZ produced shoot regeneration in 6 weeks, and the combination of 5 mg/L IBA, 10 mg/L coumarin, and 75 mg/L putrescine showed root regeneration in 3 weeks. The combined interaction of BAP and TDZ imposed cell proliferation, shoot elongation, and shoot multiplication in Dendrocalamus hamiltonii (Rajput et al. 2021). Dendrocalamus hamiltonii, Drepenostachyum falcatum (hill bamboo), or Dendrocalamus asper (edible bamboo) facilitated callus induction in 4 weeks. The interaction of 9 mg/L 2, 4-D, 2.85 mg/L NAA, and 0.88 mg/L BAP induced an embryogenic callus of Dendrocalamus asper. The NAA and BAP activity were restricted by 2, 4-D, and the activity of NAA and BAP conducted cell division and cell proliferation in the explant material of Dendrocalamus asper. A compact callus developed with the incorporation of 2, 4-D. The comprehensive interaction of 10 mg/L 2, 4-D and 5 mg/L BAP produced a compact callus of Dendrocalamus falcatum. The combination of 4.4 mg/L BAP with 2.8 mg/L Gibberellic acid (GA3) enhanced a somatic embryo in Dendrocalamus falcatum. The interaction of BAP with GA3 stimulated cell division, shoot proliferation, and morphological growth in Dendrocalamus asper. The cell division and shoot multiplication were promoted by the BAP, and the morphological growth was executed by the GA3 via the growth regulator pathway. Variable concentrations of 10–50 μM BAP produced shoot organs in Dendrocalamus asper, Dendrocalamus hamiltonii, and Dendrocalamus falcatum in 4 weeks. The variable concentrations of BAP stimulated the explant material for shoot multiplication and shoot length elongation (Bordoloi et al. 2018). The hypocotyls explant of Dendrocalamus sinicus produced a callus with the interference of growth regulator. The addition of 400 mg/L citric acid into the medium restricted the appearance of brown color in the callus (Arya and Arya 2015). The integration of 3 ppm TDZ regenerated the shoot organs in Dendrocalamus asper in 60 days. The action of TDZ was to initiate the cell division and increase the shoot length and shoot elongation. The activity of TDZ was higher than GA (Li et al. 2021). The growth regulator interactions of 0 mg/L, 9 mg/L, 18 mg/L, 27 mg/L, and 36 mg/L 2, 4-D with 9 mg/L kinetin induced an embryogenic callus from Dendrocalamus asper in 30 days. The developed callus was introduced in 0 mg/L, 4.5 mg/L, 9 mg/L, and 18 mg/L 2, 4-D in combination with 9 mg/L cytokinin for regenerating plantlets in 39 days. The activity of kinetin facilitated cell differentiation and cell multiplication, and the action of 2, 4-D induced a callus in Dendrocalamus asper. The interaction of 2, 4-D with cytokinin promoted shoot length elongation and shoot multiplication (Gusmiaty et al. 2020). The single growth regulator of 1.5 mg/L Benzyl Adenine (BA) and 1 mg/L BA produced shoot regeneration in Dendrocalamus hamiltonii in 3–5 weeks. An amount of 1 mg/L IAA, IBA, and NAA produced rootlets in Dendrocalamus hamiltonii in 3 weeks. Low concentrations of BA facilitated more shoot differentiation, shoot elongation, and shoot multiplication. The activity of IAA, IBA, and NAA imposed cell division and root development. NAA conducted cell differentiation and cell proliferation, while IAA and IBA promoted root elongation and root multiplication (Ornellas et al. 2021). The activity of 4 mg/L NAA and 2 mg/L kinetin imposed greater shootlet multiplication in 15–20 days, and the noncombination of 4 mg/L NAA induced more root regeneration in Dendrocalamus strictus. The individual action of NAA facilitated cell differentiation and cell multiplication, and the individual activity of kinetin imposed cell division, shoot elongation, and shoot formation (Abha and Sunila 2021). The interaction of 2, 4-D, BA, and NAA with 5 mg/L 2, 4-D, 2 mg/L kinetin, and 4 mg/L IBA or 2, 4-D and kinetin produced a compact callus in Dendrocalamus sericeus. The individual BA, as well as the interaction of BA with IBA; BA, kinetin, and NAA; 1 mg/L NAA with 2 mg/L kinetin; and kinetin with IAA developed shootlets from a compact callus in Dendrocalamus sericeus Munro in 8 weeks. The combinations of IBA with kinetin, IBA with NAA, IAA with NAA, and NAA with kinetin emerged rootlet in 2 weeks from cultured shootlets of Dendrocalamus sericeus Munro. (Khare et al. 2021).

The mature nodal seedlings of Dendrocalamus strictus imposed in vitro shoot and root multiplication. Multiple numbers of shoots were produced in MS medium supplemented with coconut milk, kinetin, and BAP from mature nodal seedlings. The half-strength MS liquid medium containing IBA regenerated plantlets for 48 hours in dark conditions (Prasatthong 2020). The chemical sterilization of 30–60-day-old lateral branches of Dendrocalamus hamiltonii inoculated in MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/L BAP and 0.25 mg/L TDZ for shoot regeneration was recorded in 6 weeks, and the shootlets were inoculated in MS medium supplemented with 5 mg/L IBA, 10 mg/L coumarin, and 75 mg/L putrescine for root regeneration. The root regeneration was obtained in 3 weeks. The developed plantlets were shifted into a shade-net house for 3 months for hardening (Nadgir et al. 1984). Nodal shoots with axillary bud explants of Dendrocalamus asper (edible bamboo), Drepenostachyum falcatum (hill bamboo), and Dendrocalamus hamiltonii were produced in the MS medium. Explants of the nodal tissues and the basal parts of leaves were developed into embryogenic callus. MS medium supplemented with 20–30 mg/L 2, 4-D and 2% sucrose induced somatic embryos in dark conditions. MS medium supplemented with 9 mg/L 2,4-D, 2.85 mg/L NAA, and 0.88 mg/L BAP medium induced 3–5-fold calluses every 4 weeks in Dendrocalamus asper. The embryogenic callus was developed in MS medium supplemented with 10 mg/L 2,4-D and 5 mg/L BAP for D. hamiltonii. Dendrocalamus falcatum developed 2–3-fold calluses in MS medium containing 10 mg/L 2, 4-D and 0.88 mg/L BAP. The somatic embryos transformed into plantlets within 30 days in MS medium containing 4.4 mg/L BAP and 2.8 mg/L GA3 with a 70% conversion rate in Dendrocalamus asper. The somatic embryos were modified into plantlets in MS medium containing 5 mg/L BAP for Dendrocalamus hamiltonii and Dendrocalamus falcatum. Dendrocalamus asper produced consistently 14–16-fold shoots in a 4-week subculture cycle. Dendrocalamus hamiltonii and D. falcatum shoot multiplication was 6–10 in a 4-week subculture cycle. The regenerated shootlets were inoculated in MS rooting medium supplemented with 1.0–5.0 mg/L NAA or 5–10 mg/L IBA. The plantlets developed from somatic embryos, and the regenerated plantlets were hardened, acclimatized, and transferred to a field. Nodal explants of Dendrocalamus asper were cultured in MS basal medium containing or lacking vitrofural and were supplemented with BAP (5, 10, 15, or 20 mg/L) (Raju and Divya 2020). Vitrofural decreased the culture contamination and promoted organogenic cultures. Concentrations between 15 and 20 mg/L BAP increased cell proliferation and bud sprouting (Ornellas et al. 2017). MS medium supplemented with growth regulators and additives was introduced to calluses through chemically sterilized hypocotyls of Dendrocalamus sinicus. The inclusion of citric acid at 400 mg/L in the MS medium inhibited callus browning, and the calluses were inoculated in regeneration medium for plant regeneration. Good shoot regeneration in Dendrocalamus asper (Betung bamboo) was obtained with 3/4 MS medium and 3 ppm thidiazuron (TDZ). The inclusion of TDZ into the MS medium resulted in the maximum percentage of the shoot number (80%), and its low concentration produced more leaves (Mustafa et al. 2021). The micropropagation of Dendrocalamus asper is one of the most widely cultivated commercial varieties of bamboo (edible type) dependent on germplasm selection, explants, and micropropagation techniques (Gonbad et al. 2014). This principle is followed by both commercial breeders and molecular biologists for bamboo development.

The single growth regulators of TDZ and BA imposed the shoot regeneration of the Dendrocalamus species (Li et al. 2021). The combined growth regulators of IBA, coumarin, and putrescine; BAP and GA3; NAA and kinetin; BA and IBA; BA, kinetin, and NAA; NAA and kinetin; and kinetin and IAA facilitated shoot regeneration in the Dendrocalamus species within the specific time period (Lata et al. 2012). The single growth regulators of BA and TDZ conducted root regeneration in the Dendrocalamus species, and the combined growth regulators of BAP and TDZ; IBA, coumarin, and putrescine; BAP and GA3; NAA and kinetin; BA and IBA; BA, kinetin, and NAA; NAA and kinetin; and kinetin and IAA developdd root regeneration within an unambiguous time in the Dendrocalamus species (Kumlay 2014).

Edible bamboo

Bambusa tulda covers the Indian subcontinent, Indo-China, Tibet, and Yunnan, is 20 m in height, 5–10 cm in diameter, has a 15–60-year flower period, and is extensively used in the paper pulp industry. Melocanna baccifera is cultivated in Bangladesh, Myanmar, India, and Thailand, is 10–25 m in height, 1.5–15 cm in diameter, has a 48-year flower period, and is used in treating respiratory diseases, household utensil preparation, baskets, mats, handicrafts, wall plates, screen and hat preparation, and cooking (young shoots). Bambusa bamboo is grown in India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Indo-China, Seychelles, central America, the West Indies, Java, Malaysia, and the Philippines; it is 10–35 m in height, 2–3 cm in diameter, and is extensively used in ladder and bridge development. The demand for edible bamboo shoots of Bambusa tulda and Melocanna baccifera is high in various Asian countries, and the regeneration of bamboo plantlets was investigated because of long and irregular bamboo flowering cycles and the scarcity of bamboo seeds. Nodal shoots and seeds cultures were applied in Dendrocalamus asper for plantlet regeneration (Yuan et al. 2017). The nodal shoot explants taken from juvenile primary and lateral branches produced multiple shoots from axillary buds within 2 to 8 weeks in MS medium supplemented with 0.1–15 mg/L BA. Multiple shoots (1–20) were regenerated in 6 weeks with the influence of BA in the solidified medium. The developed shootlets subcultured in MS with 3.0 mg/L BAP were enhanced by 15–20-fold for the shoot multiplication rate, and they multiplied for more than three years without loss of vigor. Successful shootlet regeneration was attained from nodal explants of the edible mushroom Arundinaria callosa in MS medium supplemented with 13.3 mg/L BAP and 1 mg/L IBA. The best root regeneration was achieved in half-strength MS medium containing 25 mg/L IBA and 0.05 mg/L BAP (Devi and Sharma 2009).

Efficient plant regeneration resulted through the forced axillary branching method in edible bamboo species viz., Bambusa bambos. The nodal segments of an elite genotype obtained high-frequency shoot regeneration in MS medium supplemented with 4.4 mg/L BAP and 1.16 mg/L kinetin. The size of the explant and the season greatly influenced the bud break. Unambiguous root regeneration was observed with 9.80 mg/L IBA in Bambusa bambos. The regenerated plantlets were successfully acclimatized and established in field conditions for natural growth (Anand et al. 2013). Effective regeneration was achieved with axillary bud explants in MS medium supplemented with 3 mg/L BAP. The comprehensive effect of 2 mg/L kinetin with 3 mg/L BAP imposed a synergistic effect for shoot multiplication in 45 days. High root regeneration was attained with dark brown rhizomes of Bambusa tulda and Melocanna baccifera in 30 days in half-strength MS medium supplemented with 3 mg/L IBA, 10 mg/L coumarin, and 3% sucrose. The developed plantlets were acclimatized in a greenhouse for 25 days (Waikhom and Louis 2014). High regeneration was achieved with nodal segments in Bambusa balcooa (Waghmare et al. 2021). The high number of roots (6.34), root length (5.67) and number of leaves (7.68) were obtained in MS basal medium containing 2.0 mg/L IBA. Plantlets of Bambusa balcooa were acclimatized in a natural mixture of soil: vermicompost: cocopeat (1:1:1 proportion) for primary hardening and in riverbed sand: soil: farmyard manure (1:1:1 proportion) for secondary hardening. Around 90% of the plantlets survived were adapted in the secondary hardening.

The growth regulator concentrations of 0.1–15 mg/L BAP and 3 mg/L BAP imposed shoot regeneration in 2–8 weeks and 6 weeks, respectively. The higher concentrations of BAP delayed the shoot multiplication and shoot regeneration in edible bamboo. An amount of 13.3 mg/L BAP was introduced for shoot regeneration and 1 mg/L IBA for root regeneration in Arundinaria callosa. The single growth regulator of BAP enhanced shoot elongation and shoot multiplication in Arundinaria callosa (Larekeng et al. 2020). The interaction of 4.4 mg/L BAP with 1.6 mg/L Kinetin produced shoot regeneration in Bambusa bambos. The combination of kinetin with BAP consecutively impacted the explant material of Bambusa bambos for the shoot elongation and shoot multiplication (Gantait et al. 2018; Khan et al. 2015). The combined effect of 2 mg/L kinetin and 3 mg/L BAP regenerated shootlets in 45 days in Bambusa tulda and Meloconna baccifera (Waikhom and Louis 2014). Root regeneration was initiated with 2 mg/L IBA in Bambusa balcooa (Das and Pal 2005). IBA had a property of root development in the explants of edible bamboo species.

The individual growth regulator of BAP contributed mostly to the shoot regeneration in edible bamboo, and the combined growth regulators of kinetin and BAP imposed shoot regeneration in edible bamboo (Hariyadi and Purwanti 2017). The single regulator of IBA and the comprehensive growth regulator of IBA, coumarin, and sucrose conducted more root regeneration in edible bamboo (Goyal et al. 2015).

The adoption of a plant in soil compositions and atmospheric climatic factors is called acclimatization (Calleja-Cabrera et al. 2020). The adaptation and acclimatization of tissue-cultured plants are performed in protected cultivation (Espinosa-Leal et al. 2018). Tissue-cultured plants adapt to the soil texture with nutrient and climatic factors. The plants grow well with the incorporation of water and mineral influx (Sathiyavani et al. 2017). Several mixtures, such as cocopeat, vermicompost, perlite, cow dung, FYM, compost, soil, and garden soil can be applied to the soil, and the soil mixtures are continuously transported into the tissue-cultured plants for nutrient enrichment and growth enhancement (Krishnapillai et al. 2020).

Chemical mixture have been recommended with variable concentrations in bamboo species for adaptation in protected cultivation. Possible concentrations of organic and inorganic chemicals can be applied to the soil for the acclimatization or adaptation of bamboo species are shown in Table 2 (Azeez and Orege 2018; Kaushal et al. 2020; Kranz et al. 2020; Lin et al. 2019; Rajput et al. 2019; Zubrod et al. 2019). The concentrations of chemicals enhance the duration of acclimatization and adaptation in bamboo species (do Vale et al. 2019; Fan et al. 2021). The chemically enriched soil water is transported in the bamboo species for natural adaptation in the relevant time duration (Hussain and Abbasi 2018).

Table 2 . Natural mixture use and time taken in the hardening of major bamboo species.

Sl. No.Bamboo speciesHardening mixturesHardening durationReferences
Bambusa species
1Bambusa balcooaFYM, sand, and soil (2:1:1)3–4 weeksKaushal et al. 2020
2Bambusa bambosGarden soil, sand, and compost (1:1:1)5–7 daysKranz et al. 2020
3Bambusa nutansSterile cocopeat and vermicompost (3:1)Azeez and Orege 2018
4Bambusa tulda and Melocanna bacciferaSand, soil, and compost (40:10:50) with 250 gm/m3 fungicide3–4 weeksZubrod et al. 2019
Dendrocalamus species
5Drepanostachyum luodianesevHumus soil and perliteLin et al. 2019
6Dendrocalamus strictus Nees.Sand, farmyard manure, and soil (1:1:1)Rajput et al. 2019


Bambusa species

Developed plantlet of Bambusa tulda and Dendrocalamus stocksii were cultivated in gunny bags containing a chemical mixture of cocopeat, vermicompost, sand; soil rite and cocopeat; and sand and perlite in the first phase hardening for 30–45 days. The adapted and acclimatized plants were transferred into the main bed containing sand and cow dung in a shade-net house for the second stage of hardening. Cocopeat had a water persistence property and maintained the water requirements in the plants. Vermicompost had a nutrient content property and distributed nutrients to the plants and forbid abnormal symptoms or disorders in the plants. The perlite conveyed potassium to the plants. The comprehensive interaction of the chemical mixture acclimatized the bamboo species in the relevant time period and maintained morphological and anatomical growth in the bamboo species (Desai et al. 2019). Developed Bambusa vulgaris and Bambusa bamboos plants were transferred into plastic cups containing sterilized cocopeat in greenhouse-nurtured, tissue-cultured plantlets. The plantlets imported adequate climate and nutrient factors for the primary hardening. The primary-hardened plants were shifted into a polyhouse for providing high shelter from climatic factors and producing a field plant (Clarkson and Hanson 1980). Developed tissue-cultured Bambusa vulgaris were hardened in a shade-net house for 20 days. The shade-net house mitigated the intensity of light and radiated a low wavelength of light into the house for maintaining plant health and systems. High light intensity creates necrosis and burns young plants. The continuous plant transfer impacted the growth and development of the bamboo plants (Teixeira et al. 2021). Mixtures of FYM, sand, and soil (2:1:1) were imposed for 3–4 weeks for the hardening of Bambusa balcooa. FYM has NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium) properties, soil improvement characteristics, and morphology and metabolic improvement in plants. Sand provided silicon element to the soil for maintaining soil texture and soil property (Greger et al. 2018). Plantlets of Bambusa bamboos were acclimatized with a mixture of garden soil, sand, and compost (1:1:1) for 5–7 days. The garden soil was more productive soil than the field soil. The soil–sand texture maintained moisture and the structure of the garden soil. The compost enhanced the growth and metabolism in the plant and mitigated the time interval of the plant growth and development (Cheng and Cheng 2015). Natural compositions of sterile cocopeat and vermicompost (3:1) were applied to Bambusa nutans plantlets for acclimatization and adaptation. The vermicompost provided NPK nutrients to the cocopeat and maintained the moisture in the cocopeat. The natural mixture of vermicompost and cocopeat maintained and regulated the growth and metabolism in the plants (Rajput et al. 2019). A natural and chemical medium of sand, soil, and compost (40:10:50) with 250 gm/m3 fungicide was recommended for Bambusa tulda and Melocanna baccifera plantlets for hardening. The compost imported nutrients and moisture into the sand and soil. The soil maintained physical and chemical properties with the incorporation of the compost (Kranz et al. 2020). The fungicide restricted the habitat of pest populations and larval populations (Zubrod et al. 2019), thereby managing soil health and plant health. A natural and chemical health medium acclimatized water potential, mineral nutrition, hormones, photosynthesis, and respiration for constructing a new plant in 3–4 weeks (Clarkson and Hanson 1980).

Natural hardening materials such as cocopeat, vermicompost, perlite, cow dung, FYM, compost, soil, and garden soil were recommended for the acclimatization and adaptation of the Bambusa species (Mishra et al. 2011). The hardening materials had water retention capacity, nutrient properties, and soil and plant improvement. The proper transport of nutrients and water from the hardening materials in the tissue-cultured Bambusa species produced a relevant duration (Soumare at al. 2021).

Dendrocalamus species

Well-developed plantlets were shifted into a container containing cocopeat in a laboratory for 25–30 days for the primary stage of hardening. The initially acclimated plantlets were shifted to a net house for the secondary stage of hardening for 1–2 months. The cocopeat had a water storage capacity and a nutrient transport capacity. The cocopeat maintained the survival rate and metabolism in the plants. The microclimate sustained the growth, development, and metabolism in the plants during the primary stage of hardening. The developing plantlets received high-intensity climatic factors in protected cultivation for creating juvenile-to-field trial plants (Wang et al. 2020c). Regenerated plantlets of Drepanostachyum luodianesev were acclimatized with humus soil and perlite in a greenhouse. The humus soil was enriched with NPK nutrients and improved the tissue system, moisture content, and metabolic system. The humus soil recovered nutrients and improved root penetration into the plant. The humus soil facilitated growth and development in the plant. The perlite clay mineral provided potassium elements, creating disease resistance, rigidity, and sucrose–water molecule transport in the plants (Lin et al. 2019). Natural ingredients and farmyard manure with soil (1:1:1) were applied in the acclimatization and adaptation of Dendrocalamus strictus Nees. The bulky FYM improved nutrient and soil characteristics and supplied nutrients in the plant to promote growth, development, and metabolism (Rajput et al. 2019).

The hardening constituents of humus soil, perlite, and FYM were utilized in the acclimatization and adaptation of the Dendrocalamus species. The species transported nutrient content and water volume from the hardening materials. The tissue-cultured species contained enzymes and metabolites to regulate the metabolism for continuous growth and development (Chandran et al. 2020). The tissue-cultured species received regular controlled climatic factors for sustaining metabolism, growth, and development at regular time intervals. The tissue-cultured plants facilitated hardening at high-to-low humidity and from low light intensity to high light intensity (Oseni et al. 2018).

Bamboo is a natural resource that controls soil and environmental factors. It provides shelter to animals and humans and maintains ecology and the ecosystem. Bamboo regulates gas compositions, the atmospheric cycle, and the environment of the ecosystem. It regulates the carbon cycle and metabolism in the system. It sequesters variable carbon concentrations from the surroundings and maintains carbon concentration points through the carbon cycle (Abebe et al. 2021). Bamboo conducts the carbon cycle metabolism for stabilizing carbon concentrations and the soil environment through the carbon cycle and biomass (Kang et al. 2022). Bamboo maintains the industrial economic value and natural resources from disaster. It forbids land degradation and types of soil erosion, and it provide resources in industries for revenue generation (Manandhar et al. 2019).

Bamboo biomass is contributes to charcoal wood and biochar formation through the gasification process (Sahoo et al. 2021a). The released gas of bamboo has much less ash, alkali, nitrogen, and sulfur content (Parthasarathy et al. 2021). The stored heat energy of bamboo is higher than agricultural residues, grasses, and straw (Sadiku et al. 2016). The net calorific value range of bamboo is 18.3–19.7 MJ/kg, higher than wood species such as beech, spruce, eucalyptus, and poplars (Choudhary et al. 2013). Bamboo is utilized for manufacturing value in addition to product formation. The exploitation of resources is rising in the bamboo sector. The climatic factors and metabolism destabilize the environment (Ingram and Tieguhong 2013). Biotechnological tools have widely been used for the regeneration of species of bamboo, for germplasm conservation, and for environment reformation (Ye et al. 2017). Several research projects have evaluated the carbon sink efficiency and carbon storage in species of bamboo for mobilizing its economic and environmental value (Chu and Liu 2021). Bamboo sequesters 17 tonnes per ha per year of carbon and assimilates 2.5–3 giga tonnes of carbon dioxide per year from the surroundings (Seethalakshmi et al. 2009). Variable climatic factors such as carbon, temperature, and the soil environment are regulated by species of bamboo (Kothandaraman et al. 2020). The carbon sequestration levels of 29.96 mg/ha by soil layer and 18.96 mg/ha by atmosphere were assimilated by Schizostachyum pergracile (Sirsat et al. 2021). The carbon present in the atmosphere are assimilated by the species of bamboo as shown in Table 3.

Table 3 . Carbon sequestration of major bamboo species.

Sl. No.Bamboo speciesRegionsCarbon sequestration References
Above-ground parts (culms, branches, leaves)Below-ground parts
15-year-old Bambusa vulgarisBangladesh forest50.4 t/ha24.7 t/haSohel et al. 2015
2Bambusa vulgarisGhana forest115.0 t/haAmoah et al. 2020
3Bambusa vulgaris var. vitataGhana forest71.0 t/haAmoah et al. 2020
47-year-old Bambusa vulgarisTerai region of Uttarakhand forest57.8 t/haTariyal et al. 2013
55-year-old Bambusa balcooaTerai region of Uttarakhand forest99.8 t/haTariyal et al. 2013
64-year-old Bambusa nutansTerai region of Uttarakhand forest86.9 t/haTariyal et al. 2013
7Bambusa tuldaNortheast India27.8 mg/ha/yearDevi and Singh 2021
8Bambusa pallidaIndian forest13.0 mg/ha/yearSingh and Kochhar 2005
9Bambusa oldhamiMexican forest6.0 mg/ha/yearCastañeda-Mendoza et al. 2005
10Bambusa vulgarisCameroon forest29.7 t/haNfornkah et al. 2021
11Bambusa tuldaMizoram forest19.5 mg/haVanlalfakawma 2014
12Bambusa arudinaceaIndian forest23.5 mg/ha/yearYuen et al. 2017
13Bambusa bamboosIndian forest81.1 mg/ha/year9.0 mg/ha/yearPiouceau et al. 2020
14Bambusa bulmeanaPhilippines forest57.1 mg/ha/year71.5 mg/ha/yearPiouceau et al. 2020
15Bambusa burmanicaChinese forest23.4 mg/ha/year7.4 mg/ha/yearNath et al. 2015
16Bambusa chungiiChinese forest29.5 mg/ha/year8.2 mg/ha/yearKumaraguru et al. 2021
17Bambusa dolic bomerithallaChinese forest32.8 mg/ha/year2.0 mg/ha/yearChen et al. 2018
18Bambusa oldhamiChinese forest25.7 mg/ha/year4.6 mg/ha/yearBernal et al. 2018
19Bambusa pachinesisMexican forest48.4 mg/ha/year2.1 mg/ha/yearBernal et al. 2018
20Bambusa polymorphaMyanmar forest15.3 mg/ha/yearSodhi and Ehrlich 2010
21Bambusa rigidaChinese forest35.7 mg/ha/year5.8 mg/ha/yearMujuru 2014
22Bambusa sp.Indian forest25.5 mg/ha/yearYen 2015
23Bambusa stenostachyaTaiwanese forest70.7 mg/ha/year159.4 mg/ha/yearEdrisi et al. 2022
24Bambusa textilisChinese forest21.7 mg/ha/year4.5 mg/ha/yearQuiroga et al. 2013
25Bambusa tuldaBangladesh, Myanmar, Philippines, and India forests23.5 mg/ha/year9.2 mg/ha/yearQuiroga et al. 2013
26Bashania fangianChinese forest2.1 mg/ha/year3.4 mg/ha/yearTang et al. 2018
Dendrocalamus species
277-year-old Dendrocalamus strictusTerai region of Uttarakhand83.8 t/ha[120]
28Dendrocalamus latiflorusNortheast India11.2 mg/ha/yearJing et al. 2004
29Dendrocalamus strictusIndian forest13.0 mg/ha/yearSingh and Singh 1999
30Dendrocalamus asperMajhera region of Uttarakhand forest24.3 t/haDhruba Bijaya and Bhandari 2010
31Dendrocalamus asperMehragaon region of Uttarakhand forest17.0 t/haDhruba Bijaya and Bhandari 2010
32Dendrocalamus strictusNepal forest1.7 t/ha0.1 t/haAgarwal and Purwar 2015
33Dendrocalamus giganteusTerai region of eastern Himalayas163.3 mg/ha/yearKumar et al. 2022b
34Dendrocalamus asperPhilippine and Taiwanese forests74.5 mg/ha/yearLantican et al. 2017
35Dendrocalamus giganteusChinese and Taiwanese forests33.6 mg/ha/year3.9 mg/ha/yearDalvi 2018
36Dendrocalamus hamiltoniiChinese forest53.1 mg/ha/year17.7 mg/ha/yearKaushal et al. 2022
37Dendrocalamus membranceChinese forest15.3 mg/ha/year7.1 mg/ha/yearJin et al. 2019
38Dendrocalamus strictusIndian and Myanmar forests20.7 mg/ha/year7.4 mg/ha/yearKumar et al. 2022a
Other Bamboo species
39Schizostachyum pergracileManipur forest22.1 mg/ha/year4.9 mg/ha/yearThokchom and Yadava 2017
40Phyllostachys pubescensNortheast forest10.9 mg/ha/yearSujarwo 2016
41Phyllostachys maikinoiNortheast forest9.9 mg/ha/yearSahoo et al. 2021b
42Phyllostachys bambusoiJapanese forest13.0 mg/ha/yearIsagi et al. 1997
43Phyllostachys maikinoiTaiwanese forest8.0 mg/ha/yearYen and Lee 2011
44Phyllostachys pubescensChinese forest7.0 mg/ha/yearZhang et al. 2014
45Phyllostachys pubescensTaiwanese forest33.18 ± 13.21 mg/ha/yearLiu and Yen 2021
46Phyllostachys maikinoiTaiwanese forest22.22 ± 24.66 mg/ha/yearLiu and Yen 2021
47Melocanna bacciferaMizoram forest12.7 mg/ha/yearJeeva et al. 2009
48Schizostachyum lumampaoCuyambay forest, Tanay forest, Rizal forest, and Philippine forest71.2 t/ha/yearMohammadi et al. 2017
49Phyllostachys maikinoiTaiwanese forest9.9 mg/ha/yearWang and Chen 2015
50Acidosasa edulisChinese forest5.1 mg/ha/year1.9 mg/ha/yearXu et al. 2017a
51Arundinaria fargessiChinese forest23.7 mg/ha/year10.9 mg/ha/yearHinge et al. 2018
52Arundinaria alpinaEthiopian and Kenyan forests68.4 mg/ha/year12.8 mg/ha/yearUrgesa 2019
53BambooChina, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam forests14.7 mg/ha/year4.1 mg/ha/yearBauters 2018
54Bashania fargesiiChinese forest2.6 mg/ha/year0.6 mg/ha/yearNyirambangutse et al. 2017
55Chimonobambusa quadrangularisChinese forest5.6 mg/ha/year6.1 mg/ha/yearNyirambangutse et al. 2017
56Chusquea culeouChilean forest80.8 mg/ha/yearAustin and Marchesini 2012
57Chusquea tenuifloraChilean forest6.5 mg/ha/yearAustin and Marchesini 2012
58Fargesia scabridaChinese forest33.5 mg/ha/year26.5 mg/ha/yearCoulston et al. 2015
59Fargesia spathaceaChinese forest4.4 mg/ha/year10.9 mg/ha/yearCoulston et al. 2015
60Fargesia spathaceaChinese forest10.9 mg/ha/year1.9 mg/ha/yearHou et al. 2019
61Gelidocalamus stellatusChinese forest1.3 mg/ha/yearHou et al. 2019
62Gigantochloa apusIndonesian forest1.9 mg/ha/year1.3 mg/ha/yearShibu 2021
63Gigantochloa levisPhilippine forest73.4 mg/ha/yearShibu 2021
64Gigantochloa sp.Indonesian and Thai forests20.9 mg/ha/yearSheila 2021
65Guddua angustifoliaBolivian, Colombian, Ecuadorian, and Brazilian forests69.9 mg/ha/year7.5 mg/ha/yearSelecky et al. 2017
66Guddua weberbaueriBolivian, Colombian, Ecuadorian, and Brazilian forests5.1 mg/ha/yearSelecky et al. 2017
67Neosinocalamus affinisChinese forest29.9 mg/ha/year16.9 mg/ha/yearWang et al. 2018
68Oligostachyum oedognatumChinese forest10.4 mg/ha/year8.2 mg/ha/yearWang et al. 2018
69Phyllostachys atroviginataChinese forest5.6 mg/ha/yearXu et al. 2018
70Phyllostachys bambusoidesJapanese and South Korean forests31.2 mg/ha/year13.4 mg/ha/yearKim et al. 2018
72Phyllostachys edulisChinese, Korean, Japanese, and Taiwanese forests33.2 mg/ha/year14.8 mg/ha/yearLi et al. 2018
73Phyllostachys heterocladaChinese forest20.0 mg/ha/year35.6 mg/ha/yearWang et al. 2013
74Phyllostachys maikinoiTaiwanese forest24.7 mg/ha/year69.2 mg/ha/yearSharma et al. 2021
75Phyllostachys meyeriChinese forest42.2 mg/ha/year59.0 mg/ha/yearSharma et al. 2021
76Phyllostachys nidulariaSouth Korean forest14.5 mg/ha/year12.2 mg/ha/yearLv et al. 2020
77Phyllostachys nigraChinese forest28.2 mg/ha/year15.1 mg/ha/yearLv et al. 2020
78Phyllostachys praecoxChinese forest6.8 mg/ha/year3.0 mg/ha/yearRen et al. 2011
79Phyllostachys rutilaChinese forest68.1 mg/ha/year117.1 mg/ha/yearRen et al. 2011
80Phyllostachys viridisChinese forest16.0 mg/ha/year41.5 mg/ha/yearBruckman 2012
81Phyllostachys amarusChinese forest17.3 mg/ha/year11.6 mg/ha/yearBruckman 2012
82Phyllostachys viridisChinese forest20.0 mg/ha/year7.8 mg/ha/yearAnjali et al. 2020
83Pseudosasa usawai and Pseudosasa amabilisChinese forest32.4 mg/ha/year34.4 mg/ha/yearAnjali et al. 2020


Bambusa species

The carbon sequestration levels of 50.44 t/ha by above-ground parts (culms, branches, and leaves), 2.52 t/ha by below-ground parts were assimilated by 5-year-old Bambusa vulgaris in a forest in Bangladesh (Sohel et al. 2015). Carbon sequestration levels of 115 t/ha and 71 t/ha for above-ground parts were sunk by Bambusa vulgaris and Bambusa vulgaris var. vitata, respectively, in a forest in Ghana (Amoah et al. 2020). Total carbon sequestration amounts (plant and soil) of 57.77 t/ha, 99.81 t/ha, and 86.92 t/ha were stored by 7-year-old Bambusa vulgaris, 5-year-old Bambusa balcooa, and 4-year-old Bambusa nutans in the Terai region of Uttarakhand (Tariyal et al. 2013). A carbon sequestration amount of 27.79 mg/ha/year in above-ground parts was assimilated by Bambusa tulda in northeast India (Devi and Singh 2021). A carbon sequestration level of 13 mg/ha/year for above-ground parts was assimilated by Bambusa pallida in an Indian forest (Singh and Kochhar 2005). A carbon sequestration amount of 6 mg/ha/year for above-ground parts was trapped by Bambusa oldhami in a forest in Mexico (Castañeda-Mendoza et al. 2005). A total carbon sequestration amount of 29.70 t/ha was stored in the above-ground parts of Bambusa vulgaris in a forest in Cameroon (Nfornkah et al. 2021). The carbon sequestration of 19.46 mg/ha in above-ground parts was trapped by the Bambusa tulda in Mizoram (Vanlalfakawma 2014). The carbon sequestration of 23.5 mg/ha/year in above-ground parts was aggregated by Bambusa arudinacea in the Indian forest (Yuen et al. 2017). The carbon assimilation of 81.1 mg/ha/year and 57.1 mg/ha/year in above-ground parts and 9 mg/ha/year and 71.5 mg/ha/year in below-ground parts were stored by Bambusa bamboos and Bambusa bulmeana respectively (Piouceau et al. 2020). The carbon assimilation of 23.4 mg/ha/year in above-ground parts and 7.4 mg/ha/year in below-ground parts were trapped by the Bambusa burmanica in China (Nath et al. 2015). Similarly, the carbon assimilation of 29.5 mg/ha/year in above-ground parts and 8.2 mg/ha/year in below-ground parts were trapped by the Bambusa chungii (Kumaraguru et al. 2021). The carbon sequestration of 32.8 mg/ha/year in above-ground parts and 2.0 mg/ha/year in below-ground parts were sunk by the Bambusa dolic bomerithalla (Chen et al. 2018). The carbon sequestration of 25.7 mg/ha/year and 48.4 mg/ha/year in above-ground parts and 4.6 mg/ha/year and 2.1 mg/ha/year in below-ground parts were assimilated by the Bambusa oldhami and Bambusa pachinesis in China and Mexico forest respectively (Bernal et al. 2018). The carbon sequestration of 15.3 mg/ha/year in above-ground part was sunk by the Bambusa polymorpha in the Myanmar forest (Sodhi and Ehrlich 2010). The carbon sequestration of 35.7 mg/ha/year in above-ground parts and 5.8 mg/ha/year in below-ground parts were sunk by the Bambusa rigida in the China forest (Mujuru 2014). The carbon sequestration of 25.5 mg/ha/year in above-ground part was obtained by Bambusa sp. in Indian forest (Yen 2015). The carbon sequestration of 70.7 mg/ha/year in above-ground parts and 159.4 mg/ha/year in below-ground parts were assimilated by Bambusa stenostachya in Taiwan forest (Edrisi et al. 2022). The carbon assimilation of 21.7 mg/ha/year in above-ground parts and 4.5 mg/ha/year in below-ground parts were trapped by the Bambusa textilis (Quiroga et al. 2013). The carbon assimilation of 23.5 mg/ha/year in above-ground parts and 9.2 mg/ha/year in below-ground parts were trapped by the Bambusa tulda in the Bangladesh, Myanmar, Philippines and India forests respectively (Majumdar et al. 2016). The carbon assimilation of 2.1 mg/ha/year in above-ground parts and 3.4 mg/ha/year in below-ground parts were trapped by the Bashania fangian in China forest (Tang et al. 2018).

Dendrocalamus species

The carbon sequestration of 83.84 t/ha was assimilated by the 7 years old Dendrocalamus strictus in the Terai region of Uttarakhand (Rawat et al. 2018). The carbon sequestration of 11.2 mg/ha/year in above-ground parts was assimilated by the Dendrocalamus latiflorus (Jing et al. 2004) whereas 15.26 mg/ha/year was stored by the Dendrocalamus longispathus (Ji et al. 2020). The carbon sequestration of 13 mg/ha/year of above-ground parts was stored by Dendrocalamus strictus in the Indian forest (Singh and Singh 1999). Similarly, carbon assimilation of 1.66 t/ha in above-ground parts and 0.08 t/ha in below-ground parts was recorded in Dendrocalamus strictus in Nepal forest (Dhruba Bijaya and Bhandari 2010). The carbon sequestration of 24.34 t/ha in above-ground parts was sunk by Dendrocalamus asper in Majhera place of Uttarakhand forest whereas, 17 t/ha in above-ground parts was sunk by Dendrocalamus asper in Mehragaon place of Uttarakhand forest (Agarwal and Purwar 2015). The carbon assimilation of 74.5 mg/ha/year in above-ground parts was reported in Dendrocalamus asper in Philippines and Taiwan forests (Huang et al. 2021). The carbon sequestration of 19.94 mg/ha/year in above-ground parts was aggregated by the Dendrocalamus longispathus (Kumar et al. 2022b). The carbon sequestration of 163.28 mg/ha/year in above-ground parts was aggregated by Dendrocalamus giganteus in the terai region of the eastern Himalayas (Lantican et al. 2017). The carbon assimilation of 33.6 mg/ha/year in above-ground parts and 3.9 mg/ha/year in below-ground parts was reported in Dendrocalamus giganteus in China and Taiwan forest (Dalvi 2018). The carbon sequestration of 53.1 mg/ha/year in above-ground parts and 17.7 mg/ha/year in below-ground parts were trapped by the Dendrocalamus hamiltonii in China forest (Kaushal et al. 2022). The carbon sequestration of 15.3 mg/ha/year in above-ground parts and 7.1 mg/ha/year in below-ground parts were trapped by Dendrocalamus membrance (Jin et al. 2019). The carbon assimilation of 20.7 mg/ha/year in above-ground parts and 7.4 mg/ha/year in below-ground parts were trapped by the Dendrocalamus strictus in India and Myanmar forests (Kumar et al. 2022a).

Other bamboo species

The carbon sequestration of 22.10 mg/ha/year by above-ground parts, 4.85 mg/ha/year by below-ground parts and 53.25 mg/ha/year by soil strata were trapped by the Schizostachyum pergracile in Manipur (Thokchom and Yadava 2017). The carbon sequestration of 10.94 mg/ha/year was trapped by the Phyllostachys pubescens (Sujarwo 2016). The carbon assimilation of 9.89 mg/ha/year was sunk by Phyllostachys maikinoi in the forest of North-East India (Sahoo et al. 2021b). The carbon stock of 13 mg/ha/year was assimilated by the Phyllostachys bambusoi in the forest of Japan (Isagi et al. 1997) and 8 mg/ha/year was assimilated by the Phyllostachys maikinoi in the Taiwan forests (Yen and Lee 2011).

The carbon assimilation of 7 mg/ha/year was obtained by Phyllostachys pubescens in China forest (Zhang et al. 2014). The 5 years old Bixa orellana and Khaya senegalensis sunk carbon by 23.9–13.2 t/acre, 71-334 t/acre and 71-334 t/acre (Boomiraj et al. 2021). The carbon assimilation of 33.18 ± 13.21 mg/ha/year by above-ground parts (culms, branches, leaves) and 22.22 ± 24.66 mg/ha/year by above-ground parts were assimilated by Phyllostachys pubescens and Phyllostachys maikinoi respectively in the forest of Taiwan (Liu and Yen 2021). The carbon sequestration of 12.68 mg/ha/year above-ground part was sunk by the Melocanna baccifera in the forest of Mizoram (Jeeva et al. 2009). The carbon sequestration of 71.19 t/ha/year above-ground part was stored by the Schizostachyum lumampao in Cuyambay forest, Tanay forest, Rizal forest and Philippines forest (Mohammadi et al. 2017). The carbon assimilation of 9.89 mg/ha/year above-ground part was trapped by the Phyllostachys maikinoi (Wang and Chen 2015). The carbon sequestration of 5.1 mg/ha/year by the above-ground parts (culms, branches, leaves) and 1.9 mg/ha/year by the below-ground parts were assimilated by Acidosasa edulis in China (Xu et al. 2017a). Similarly, 23.7 mg/ha/year by above-ground parts and 10.9 mg/ha/year by below-ground parts were reported in Arundinaria fargessi (Hinge et al. 2018). The carbon assimilation of 68.4 mg/ha/year in above-ground parts and 12.8 mg/ha/year in below-ground parts were reported in Arundinaria alpina (Urgesa 2019). The carbon sequestration of 14.7 mg/ha/year by above-ground parts and 4.1 mg/ha/year by below-ground parts were assimilated by bamboo in China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam forest (Bauters 2018). The carbon sequestration of 2.6 mg/ha/year in above-ground parts and 0.6 mg/ha/year in below-ground parts; 5.6 mg/ha/year in above-ground parts and 6.1 mg/ha/year in below-ground parts were trapped by the Bashania fargesii and Chimonobambusa quadrangularis respectively in China forest (Nyirambangutse et al. 2017). The carbon sequestration of 80.8 mg/ha/year in above-ground parts and 6.5 mg/ha/year in above-ground parts were trapped by the Chusquea culeou and Chusquea tenuiflora respectively in Chile forest (Austin and Marchesini 2012). The carbon assimilation of 33.5 mg/ha/year in above-ground parts and 26.5 mg/ha/year in below-ground parts; 4.4 mg/ha/year in above-ground parts and 10.9 mg/ha/year in below-ground parts were trapped by the Fargesia scabrida and Fargesia spathacea respectively in China forest (Coulston et al. 2015). The carbon sequestration of 10.9 mg/ha/year in above-ground parts and 1.9 mg/ha/year in below-ground parts was trapped by the Fargesia spathacea (Hou et al. 2019). The carbon assimilation of 1.9 mg/ha/year in above-ground parts and 1.3 mg/ha/year in below-ground parts were trapped by Gigantochloa apus (Shibu 2021). The carbon sequestration of 20.9 mg/ha/year in above-ground parts was trapped by the Gigantochloa sp. in Indonesia (Sheila 2021). The carbon sequestration of 69.9 mg/ha/year in above-ground parts and 7.5 mg/ha/year in below-ground parts were trapped by Guddua angustifolia (Selecky et al. 2017). The carbon assimilation of 29.9 mg/ha/year in above-ground parts and 16.9 mg/ha/year in below-ground parts; 10.4 mg/ha/year in above-ground parts and 8.2 mg/ha/year in below-ground parts were trapped by the Neosinocalamus affinis and Oligostachyum oedognatum respectively in China forest (Wang et al. 2018). The carbon assimilation of 5.6 mg/ha/year in above-ground parts was trapped by Phyllostachys atroviginata in China forest (Xu et al. 2018). The carbon assimilation of 31.2 mg/ha/year in above-ground parts and 13.4 mg/ha/year in below-ground parts were trapped by Phyllostachys bambusoides in Japan and South Korea forest (Kim et al. 2018). The carbon sequestration of 33.2 mg/ha/year in above-ground parts and 14.8 mg/ha/year in below-ground parts were trapped by Phyllostachys edulis in China, Korea, Japan and Taiwan forest (Li et al. 2018). The carbon sequestration of 20 mg/ha/year in above-ground parts and 35.6 mg/ha/year in below-ground parts were sunk by Phyllostachys heteroclada in China forest (Wang et al. 2013). The carbon assimilation of 24.7 mg/ha/year in above-ground parts and 69.2 mg/ha/year in below-ground parts and 42.2 mg/ha/year in above-ground parts and 59.0 mg/ha/year in below-ground parts were sunk by the Phyllostachys maikinoi and Phyllostachys meyeri in Taiwan and China forest respectively (Sharma et al. 2021). The carbon assimilation of 14.5 mg/ha/year in above-ground parts and 12.2 mg/ha/year in below-ground parts and 28.2 mg/ha/year in above-ground parts and 15.1 mg/ha/year in below-ground parts were sunk by the Phyllostachys nidularia and Phyllostachys nigra in South Korea and China forest respectively (Lv et al. 2020). The carbon assimilation of 6.8 mg/ha/year in above-ground parts and 3 mg/ha/year in below-ground parts and 68.1 mg/ha/year in above-ground parts and 117.1 mg/ha/year in below-ground parts were sunk by Phyllostachys praecox and Phyllostachys rutila respectively in China forest (Ren et al. 2011). The carbon sequestration of 16 mg/ha/year in above-ground parts and 41.5 mg/ha/year in below-ground parts and 17.3 mg/ha/year in above-ground parts and 11.6 mg/ha/year in below-ground parts were sunk by Phyllostachys viridis and Phyllostachys amarus respectively in China forest (Bruckman 2012). The carbon sequestration of 20 mg/ha/year in above-ground parts and 7.8 mg/ha/year in below-ground parts and 32.4 mg/ha/year in above-ground parts and 34.4 mg/ha/year in below-ground parts were sunk by the Phyllostachys viridis and Pseudosasa amabilis respectively in China forest (Anjali et al. 2020).

Carbon sequestration and carbon storage are involved in various species of bamboo. The species of bamboo harness carbon with the involvement of carbon cycle; also maintain the soil and temperature of the surrounding with the interference of the cycle (Hatfield and Dold 2019; Kumari and Bhardwaj 2017). The species of bamboo positively impacts several factors for maintaining the environment ecosystem i.e., Soil, Carbon and Temperature.

Species of bamboo maintains an edaphic factor within soil layers. Species of bamboo forbid land degradation of 6 m2 and maintain the habitat and biogeochemical cycle of the soil layer. Bamboo improves the physical and chemical properties of the soil (Manpoong and Tripathi 2019). Bamboo species reform the nutrients and properties in poor soil. Bamboo species grow well in acidic soil with low base saturation and in gravel content soil, where it reduces alkaline in shallow, calcareous soil with gravel content. It recovers clay content, total nitrogen, and soil organic matter and has a cation exchange capacity, including microbial diversity in the soil (Manpoong et al. 2020). Species of bamboo assimilate more NPK nutrient content in the upper soil horizon than in the lower soil horizon. Average nitrogen assimilation rates of 333.77 kg/ha, 332.20 kg/ha, 319.25 kg/ha, 319.45 kg/ha, 331.47 kg/ha, 324.30 kg/ha, and 315.87 kg/ha were managed by Dendrocalamus asper, Dendrocalamus hamiltonii, Bambusa tulda, Phyllostachys aurea, Dendrocalamus strictus, Melocanna baccifera, and Phyllostachys bambusoides, respectively, in the upper soil horizon of Himachal Pradesh hill. Average phosphorus assimilation rates of 44.08 kg/ha, 43.67 kg/ha, 39.57 kg/ha, 40.27 kg/ha, 44.42 kg/ha, 41.43 kg/ha, and 39.22 kg/ha were respectively transported by Dendrocalamus asper, Dendrocalamus hamiltonii, Bambusa tulda, Phyllostachys aurea, Dendrocalamus strictus, Melocanna baccifera, and Phyllostachys bambusoides in the upper soil horizon of Himachal Pradesh hill. Average potassium assimilation rates of 319.52 kg/ha, 318.39 kg/ha, 314.11 kg/ha, 315.55 kg/ha, 316.89 kg/ha, 315.49 kg/ha, and 314.19 kg/ha were transported by Dendrocalamus asper, Dendrocalamus hamiltonii, Bambusa tulda, Phyllostachys aurea, Dendrocalamus strictus, Melocanna baccifera, and Phyllostachys bambusoides, respectively, in the upper soil horizon of Himachal Pradesh hill (Kumar et al. 2022c; Nongdam and Tikendra 2014). Bamboo is involved the calcium exchange and magnesium exchange from soil layers. Calcium exchange rates of 818.63 mg/kg, 817.57 mg/kg, 811.03 mg/kg, 811.61 mg/kg, 817.81 mg/kg, 811.88 mg/kg, and 811.77 mg/kg were respectively transported by Dendrocalamus asper, Dendrocalamus hamiltonii, Bambusa tulda, Phyllostachys aurea, Dendrocalamus strictus, Melocanna baccifera, and Phyllostachys bambusoides in the upper soil horizon of Himachal Pradesh hill. Magnesium exchange rates of 626.49 mg/kg, 625.88 mg/kg, 618.04 mg/kg, 619.04 mg/kg, 625.56 mg/kg, 619.99 mg/kg, and 617.57 mg/kg were transported by Dendrocalamus asper, Dendrocalamus hamiltonii, Bambusa tulda, Phyllostachys aurea, Dendrocalamus strictus, Melocanna baccifera, and Phyllostachys bambusoides, respectively in the upper soil horizon of Himachal Pradesh hill (Keenor et al. 2021).

Anthropogenic activity disturbs the environmental system and raises carbon concentrations in the environment. Carbon availability is nearly three times more than the above-ground parts and two times more than the atmospheric carbon. The carbon emission from soil is 7–9 times more than anthropogenic activity carbon (Wang et al. 2020b). The carbon rate of emission per year is 4.3%, which is higher than China’s rate (Vashum and Jayakumar 2012). The carbon storage of the above-ground terrestrial habitat is about 86%, and soil stores 73% of carbon of the earth (Partey et al. 2017). Bamboo is an imperative agroforestry tree that improves soil fertility and nutrient cycling. The prevalence of bamboo is one-quarter in tropical regions and one-fifth in subtropical regions (Yiping et al. 2010). Bamboo is also involved in combating climate change through various processes, such as carbon sequestration through improving the soil carbon stock (Manpoong et al. 2021). Bamboo contributes to the stabilization of carbon concentrations in the soil and the environment of temperate regions and tropical regions. Species of bamboo sink more carbon content during the vegetative growth phase (Yiping et al. 2010), sequestering carbon from both above-ground and below-ground parts. Annona reticulata and Annona squamosa respectively sank 83.1 kg/ha and 73.5 kg/ha carbon (Chavan and Rasal 2012). Species of bamboo assimilate 18.93–23.55 mg/ha/year on average in northeast India (Gera and Chauhan 2010). Species of bamboo are harvested after 5–7 years for a short interval. The leaves of bamboo fall between 12–18 months, and the abscission of the leaves of bamboo species sequesters 1.5–5 mg carbon per ha. The leaves, sheath, and branches fall after 72 months and store 4.7 mg of carbon per ha (Zheng et al. 2020). Species of bamboo transfer inorganic carbon into molecular carbon dioxide through the atmospheric carbon cycle. The molecular carbon dioxide is utilized in the metabolic system. Waste and dead material such as leaves, stems, and the sheath, contain biochemical matter that is decomposed into organic matter through the biogeochemical cycle and produce nutrients such as C, H, O, and N through the mineralization process. Species of bamboo translocate carbon and other nutrients from the soil for growth and development or compensates for the nutrients in the soil (Kiciński and Dyjak 2020).

Humans destruct forest populations for fulfilling desired resources. The destruction of forests impacts global warming, rainfall, and temperature. It creates high temperatures and less rainfall in the environment. Rising temperatures impact the growth and yield of bamboo (Lawrence et al. 2022). Forest loss mitigates the carbon cycle and increases the carbon content in the environment. It impacts the albedo, evapotranspiration, and canopy roughness of plants. Deforestation causes a transition in light intensity and temperature. It raises the humidity in the environment and mitigates aeration in the surroundings. The concentration of nitrogen oxide raise the quantities of methane and lead in the atmosphere. The concentrations of ozone and methane affect the biochemical cycle (Tian et al. 2015).

Bamboo is an imperative forest resource for mitigating climatic factor transition and ecological balance. The reforestation of bamboo species balances the ecology and the ecosystem. Species of bamboo decline soil erosion by 75%. They maintain climatic factors by two-fold in montane temperatures and pine plantations or by six-fold in tropical deciduous forests. Scizostachyum pergracile sank 220 mg carbon/ha/year for establishing stable climatic factors. A mature bamboo forest sinks 15 tons of carbon/ha/year for balancing the environment. Species of bamboo maintained a 5–20°C average temperature, 1,000–2,000 mm rainfall, and a pH of 4.5–7 in the environment (Takano et al. 2017). Species of bamboo decline the intensity of light and restrict the incidence of ultraviolet light. The reforestation of bamboo mitigated the ambient temperature and increases the humidity and microbial activity in soil (Chang et al. 2019). The restoration of bamboo species transforms the temperature and microclimate of the surroundings. Bambusa vulgaris, Bambusa oldhamii, and Bambusa tuldoides declined the wind speed and temperature and raised the humidity of a forest shelter (Ashton 2017). Species of bamboo mitigated the intensity of light, temperature, and evapotranspiration in a forest (Ferreira et al. 2020). Bamboo species maintained a 2–3°C lower temperature during full sunshine (Mulatu et al. 2016). Temperatures of 26.7°C, 32.9°C, and 29°C were found at 8:00, 12:00, and 16:00 O’clock, respectively. Species of bamboo maintained the temperatures of both soil and air (Bootsma 1976).

Limitations

The propagation of bamboo, in general, and that of tissue cultures in particular, has certain limitations compared to other crops (Singh et al. 2013). Propagation via seed is limited because of long flowering cycles (up to 120 year), seed sterility, and low seed vigor. The irregular appearance of flowers in monocarpic plants because of floral anthesis before culm death and extensive polyploidy levels are major challenges in woody plants. Vegetative propagation by cuttings, offsets and rhizomes is also inadequate to cope with the demand for planting stock due to large propagule size, limited availability, seasonal dependence, low multiplication rate, and low rooting percentage. Woody bamboo takes a long time (100 years) to flower, and the flowering time of bamboo cannot be predicted for each generation. Investigation is required in the study of the bamboo flowering mechanism and selective breeding (Lata et al. 2012). Higher levels of contaminations, variability in the sprouting of buds, insufficient multiplication rates, and difficulty in rooting are found in bamboo tissue cultures. The development of competent calluses, the long-term maintenance of competent calluses, and the efficiency of plantlet regeneration are prime issues of bamboo tissue cultures (Muralidharan 2009). Regenerated bamboo plantlets are acclimatized in a protected cultivation and laboratory room with soil-led chemical mixtures for 3–5 months, but the acclimatized plantlets are incompetent for field trials for crop improvement (Xu et al. 2017b).

The raw materials of bamboo are involved in the production of laminated boards, furniture, bamboo ply, roofing sheets, fencing, flooring, food, charcoal, vinegar, beverages, natural pesticides, toiletries, house-made handicrafts, construction work, furniture, utensils, fiber, and paper. The young shoots are used in preparing value-added products for consumption purposes, and the young leaves are consumed by animals. The fibrous sheaths are chopped into pieces and are consumed in fish and meat curries, soups, and pickles.

The aerial shoots of bamboo are enriched with a high protein content, with less fat content, moderate dietary fiber, amino acids, selenium, potassium, antioxidants, and minerals for a healthy heart. Young bamboo shoots are applied in the preparation of fermented shoots, pickles, bamboo beer, bamboo cookies, soft drinks, bamboo wine, and canned products around the world. The shoots contain 18 amino acids and 96% moisture.

The raw materials of bamboo are applied in post-harvest product preparations such as bamboo extracts, bamboo salt, and bamboo vinegar, which controls diabetes and cholesterol levels. Secondary metabolites are extracted from the aerial shoots for the treatment of hypertension, sweating, and paralysis, as well as their antioxidant activities and anti-inflammatory effects. The morphological portions of Bambusa arundinacea are used for curing various diseases, such as ringworm, bleeding gums, ulcers, diabetes, arthritis, and inflammation; they have anti-oxidant activity, astringent activity, anti-helmintic activity, anti-leprotic activity, and anti-coagulation activity. The pyrolyzate is extracted from the shoots for treating the nervous system for oxidative stress; it has anti-apoptotic effects and is used for ischemic injury treatment. The young shoots of Bambusa bamboos enhance the appetite, and the extracted metabolite from the buds treats estrogenic activity, as well as having antifertility and birth control activity and cancer prevention properties and reducing blood pressure. The chemical isolated from the leaves of Bambusa bamboos is used for curing common bacterial diseases.

The morphological portion of the plant possess silica, choline, betaine, cyanogenetic glycosides, albuminoids, oxalic acid, reducing sugars, resins, waxes, benzoic acid, arginine, cysteine, histidine, niacin, riboflavin, thiamine, protein, gluteline, lysine, methionine, a proteolytic enzyme, nuclease, and urease. The beneficial organic molecules such as oxalic acid, reducing sugars, resins, waxes, hydrocyanic acid (HCN), and benzoic acid are developed with the incorporation of the metabolism. Several amino acids, such as arginine, cysteine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylamine, threonine, valine, tyrosine, niacin, riboflavin, and thiamine, are synthesized in the shoot system for structural building. The leaf generates glutamine, lysine, methionine, betaine, choline, a proteolytic enzyme, nuclease, and urease for the system activities (Hossain et al. 2015).

Specific growth regulator interactions are involved in both the direct and indirect regeneration in major bamboo species. The concentrations of growth regulators influence callus induction and regeneration in bamboo species with the incorporation of tissue culture methods. The tissue-culturing of bamboo plants involves the restoration of forest resources and maintaining edaphic and climatic factors. Tissue-cultured bamboo species conserve germplasm, sink carbon, and stabilize climatic factors. A suitable hardening mixture involves the acclimatization and adaptation of a bamboo species with a relevant duration for new plant development. The development of bamboo species can sustainably transform the environment and the biogeochemical cycle.

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