Journal of Ecology and Environment

pISSN 2287-8327 eISSN 2288-1220


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Published online April 15, 2019

Journal of Ecology and Environment (2019) 43:13

© The Ecological Society of Korea.

Seasonal fluctuations and changing characteristics of a temperate zone wetland bird community

Soo-Dong Lee1 and Hyun-Kyung Kang2

Department of Landscape Architecture, Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology, Jinju-si, South Korea; Department of Environment and Landscaping, Sangmyung University, Cheonan-si, South Korea

Correspondence to:Hyun-Kyung Kang

Received: June 24, 2018; Accepted: March 7, 2019

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The composition of wild bird populations in temperate zones greatly varies depending on phenological changes rather than other environmental factors. Particularly, wild birds appearing in wetlands fluctuate greatly due to the crossover of species arriving for breeding during the summer and for wintering. Therefore, to understand the changes to species composition related to phenology, we conducted this basic analysis of populations to further the cause of the protection of wetland-dependent wild birds.>


It is wrong to simply divide a wild bird population investigation into seasons. This study identifies species composition and indicator species that change along with seasons. Wetlands to be surveyed are protected by natural monuments and wetland inventory and are in a state close to nature. In order to identify as many species as possible in wetlands, a survey was conducted in both shallow and deep wetlands. The water depth varied in these areas, ranging from 0.2 to 2.0 m, allowing for both dabbling and diving ducks to inhabit the area. Surveys were conducted using line-transect and distance sampling methods and were conducted at intervals of 2 weeks. The survey was conducted under the following three categories: the eco-tone and emergent zone, the submergent zone, and the water surface. The survey was conducted along a wetland boundary by observing wild birds. A PC-ord program was used for clustering, and the SAS program was used to analyze the changes in species composition. The data strongly indicates that day length is the main factor for seasonal migration periods, despite the fact that climate change and increasing temperatures are often discussed.>

Results and conclusions

The indicator species for determining seasons include migrant birds such as Ardea cinerea, Alcedo atthis, Anas penelope, and Poiceps ruficollis, as well as resident birds such as Streptopelia orientalis and Emberiza elegans. Importantly, increases in local individual counts of these species may also serve as indicators. The survey results of seasonal fluctuations in temperate zones shows that spring (April to June), summer (July to September), autumn (October), and winter (November to March) are clearly distinguishable, even though spring and summer seasons tend to overlap, leading to the conclusion that additional research could more clearly identify fluctuation patterns in species composition and abundance in the study area.

Keywords: Indicator species, Seasonal fluctuation, Wetland bird community, Temperate zone, Species composition, Seasonal migration periods, Climate change

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Journal of Ecology and Environment

pISSN 2287-8327 eISSN 2288-1220