Published online August 19, 2022
Journal of Ecology and Environment (2022) 46:22
Avinash Sharma1* , Chowlani Manpoong1, Anwesha Gohain2, Himanshu Pandey3, Gompi Padu1 and Hage Aku1
1Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Arunachal University of Studies, Namsai 792103, India
2Faculty of Science, Arunachal University of Studies, Namsai 792103, India
3Division of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Indian Institute of Sugarcane Research, Lucknow 226005, India
Correspondence to:Avinash Sharma
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Background: Promising specific growth regulators are employed in the tissue cultures of various bamboo species. Specific natural hardening mixtures support the acclimatization and adaptation of bamboo under protected cultivation.
Results: The growth regulators like 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D), Naphthaleneacetic Acid (NAA), Thidiazuron (TDZ), 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP), Kinetin, Gelrite, Benzyl Adenine (BA), Indole Butyric Acid (IBA), Coumarin, Putrescine, Gibberellic acid (GA3), Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) has been widely used for callus induction, root regeneration and imposing plant regeneration in various species of bamboo such as Bambusa spp. and Dendrocalamus spp. Different combinations of growth regulators and phytohormones have been used for regenerating some of the major bamboo species. Natural hardening materials such as cocopeat, vermicompost, perlite, cow dung, farmyard manure, compost, soil, garden soil, and humus soil have been recommended for the acclimatization and adaptation of bamboo species. Standard combinations of growth regulators and hardening mixtures have imposed tissue culture, acclimatization, and adaptation in major bamboo species.
Conclusions: Bamboo contributes to soil fertility improvement and stabilization of the environment. Bamboo species are also involved in managing the biogeochemical cycle and have immense potential for carbon sequestration and human use. This paper aims to review the various growth regulators, natural mixtures, and defined media involved in regenerating major bamboo species through in vitro propagation. In addition, the ecological benefits of safeguarding the environment are also briefly discussed.
Keywords: bamboo regeneration, carbon sequestration, climate change, growth regulators, tissue culture
Bamboo is called ‘green gold’ and “poor man’s timber” and is classified in the subfamily
The exploitation of the bamboo species arises from the value-added product formation and income generation in the modern era. Bamboo raw material produces fiber and is used in building roads and bridges, preparing clothes, jewelry design, fuel consumption, textiles, utensils, tableware, and furniture (Econation 2018). Bamboo falls under nontimber forest produce and does not require the external application of water and fertilizers. Bamboo fiber strain strength is 28,000 per square inch, and the steel strain strength is 23,000 per square inch. The stress capacity of bamboo is two-fold greater than steel (Sabbir et al. 2011). The raw material of bamboo has applications in the product manufacturing of several industry sectors, such as cups, baskets, nets, bags, mats, hats, lanterns, pencils, match boxes, lampshades, fences, edible shoots, raw shoots, furniture, crafts, woolen threads, clothes, bridges, jewelry, sheets, paper nappies, bone medicine, fiber, tableware, utensils, drugs, panels, floors, and agricultural implements. The demand for bamboo has been rising in the global market (Sharma et al. 2020).
Conventional breeding has not emerged as a great achievement because of the non-vegetative phase and irregular flowering. Bamboo produces a huge number of seeds after a long life cycle, with most of the seeds being nonviable (Suwal et al. 2020). Thus, complementary methods involved in producing desired clones in a standard time period, species improvement, and germplasm conservation in bamboo are in vitro culture techniques, such as micropropagation, auxiliary bud propagation, rhizogenesis, etc. (Mudoi et al. 2014; Verma and Mishra 2018). Plant tissue culture technique is useful to obtain large bamboo populations from desired species. Bamboo tissue cultures were first experimented with by Alexander and Rao (1968) in Dendrocalamus strictus. Several methods, such as adventitious shoot bud methods, axillary buds, and somatic embryogenesis, were tested in the bamboo species.
The conventional breeding method takes more time for the crop improvement of bamboo. Experts counter male sterility problems, embryo disruptions, and seed-setting problems in the improvement of the bamboo plant. Asexual propagation methods such as offset cutting and rhizome cutting produce cloned bamboo plants but encounter low phenotypic growth, low gene frequency, long flowering cycles, seed sterility, low seed viability, and bulk cutting problems (Bakshi et al. 2015). The morphological and reproductive growth of the bamboo plant takes 40–60 years. Several researchers have emphasized efficient biotechnological methods such as micropropagation, floral propagation, organogenesis, and somatic embryogenesis for bamboo plant improvement. Juvenile explants, zygotic embryos, seeds, seedlings, nodal buds, and nodal cuttings successfully facilitated shoot and root regeneration and plant regeneration in several species of bamboo (Brar et al. 2013). Several species of bamboo, such as
Growth regulators are an imperative factor in the internal and external morphogenesis of plants. They functions naturally, as well as synthetically, for enhancing the phases of growth in plants (Zahid et al. 2021). They govern in adverse, as well as normal, conditions. Growth regulators with or without combinations promoting naturally morphological and anatomical growth in plants through gene regulations and expressions were discovered by Jacob Monad (Sabagh et al. 2021). Growth regulators maintained acclimatization and adaptation in plants through the biosynthetic pathway (Wang et al. 2020a). Growth regulators proliferated permanent and meristematic tissue systems in plants through the biosynthetic pathway (Moon et al. 2015). Various synthetic growth regulators were formulated for conducting tissue cultures in plants (Khan et al. 2020). Synthetic growth regulators were the key factor in the chemical compositions of media (Hameg et al. 2020). Growth regulators induced callus formation and regenerates plantlets. The combination and noncombination of growth regulators facilitated callus induction and regeneration in plants (Ikeuchi et al. 2013). Growth regulators with or without combination with variable concentrations have conducted callus induction and regeneration in plants (Ming et al. 2019; Ye et al. 2017).
Plants uptake nutrients and water with the interventions of metabolic activities (Mundim and Pringle 2018). Plants and seedlings were acclimatized and adapted in open fields with water and nutrient movement (Hussain et al. 2012). The growth and development in plants were facilitated with the intervention of climatic factors, soil–water interactions, and element movement (Elbasiouny et al. 2022). Developed tissue-cultured plants were acclimatized and adapted with standard soil ingredients and controlled climatic factors in protected cultivations (Hazarika 2003). Several soil mixtures, such as cocopeat, vermicompost, perlite, cow dung, Farm Yard Manure (FYM), compost, soil, and garden soil were applied to the tissue-cultured plants for growth enhancement and nutrient enrichment (Teixeira Da Silva et al. 2017). Soil ingredients and controlled climatic factors of protected cultivations both created acclimatization and adaptation in tissue-cultured plants (Hazarika et al. 2006; Singh et al. 2021).
Bamboo governs an imperative role in the maintenance of climatic factors (Kang et al. 2022). Bamboo sequesters variable carbon and has a different growing period (Bradshaw 2012). The plant provides a habitat to flora and fauna, forbids land degradation, and maintains the soil system (Smith et al. 2015). It also regulates the biogeochemical cycle and atmospheric cycle (Dusenge et al. 2019) by maintaining concentrations of carbon dioxide through carbon sequestration and temperature variation in the environment (Akwada and Akinlabi 2016; Gray and Brady 2016; Lu et al. 2019; Song et al. 2020; Taub 2010; Xu et al. 2020).
The plant growth regulator induces direct and indirect regeneration in bamboo species to compensate for species loss and conservation. The standard growth regulator emerges in micropropagated plants in a specific time period. The cloned plants acclimatize and adapt to protected cultivation with controlled climatic factors. The hardened plants grow in both barren and nonbarren land for controlling climatic factors and maintaining the ecosystem. The acclimatized plants drive raw materials development and post-harvest product formation sustainably. The acclimatized plants are involved in carbon sequestration, biogeochemical cycle stabilization, and climate loss, and they construct an evergreen ecosystem in their surroundings.
Tissue culturing in bamboo is a broad field, which includes micropropagation, floral propagation, organogenesis, somatic embryogenesis, zygotic embryo development, nodal buds, and nodal cutting. The development of a healthy plant depends upon the quantity and ratio of mixtures in the growing media and their bio-physico-chemical characteristics. This study’s scope is, therefore, limited to the use of various growth regulators, natural mixtures, and defined media for major bamboo species, which tend to play a crucial role in the in vitro propagation of bamboo and the development of low-cost tissue culture strategies. In addition, the literature on the ecological value and environmental significance of major bamboo species have also been reviewed. The main objectives were to understand the growth regulator interactions and time taken in regeneration, mixture uses and time taken in hardening and the ecological values of some major bamboo species.
Growth regulators are an important factor in the chemical compositions of media and tissue culture. They stimulate plant material for callus induction and regeneration. The combination or noncombination of growth regulators naturally enhances cell multiplication, growth, and development in a plant (Fig. 1) (Abha Manohar et al. 2022; Bidabadi and Jain 2020). Growth regulators with or without combination with variable concentrations were applied in a species of bamboo for morphological and anatomical growth through gene regulation (Suwal et al. 2021). Specific explant cells and specific explant tissues create a stagnant or homeostasis state in the cell organelle system, transit metabolism, and metabolic pathways in the immobilized nutrient media. The specific explant cells and specific explant tissues induce callus formation with the intervention of auxin growth regulator in the immobilized nutrient media. The calluses contain induced embryonic-determined cells (IEDCs) to stimulate embryo formation. The calluses containing IEDCs are inoculated into the auxin; cytokinin growth regulators ration enriched media for the root and shoot regeneration. The repressor protein expresses the ipt3 (
The center of origin of
The individual effects of 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) include cell division, shoot length elongation, and shoot formation, and the individual effects of Naphthaleneacetic Acid (NAA) promote cell division and root emergence in bamboo species (Amiri and Mohammadi 2021). Solidified mannitol salt (MS) agar medium containing 1 mg/L BAP produced shootlets in 20–25 days, and rootlets appeared in 30–35 days in MS medium containing 2 mg/L NAA from sterilized 1-1/2 year nodal explants of
The growth regulator 2, 4-D encouraged callus induction in the
The individual growth regulator of 2.5 mg/L BAP multiplied the number of shoots in
The mature nodal seedlings of
The single growth regulators of TDZ and BA imposed the shoot regeneration of the
Efficient plant regeneration resulted through the forced axillary branching method in edible bamboo species viz.,
The growth regulator concentrations of 0.1–15 mg/L BAP and 3 mg/L BAP imposed shoot regeneration in 2–8 weeks and 6 weeks, respectively. The higher concentrations of BAP delayed the shoot multiplication and shoot regeneration in edible bamboo. An amount of 13.3 mg/L BAP was introduced for shoot regeneration and 1 mg/L IBA for root regeneration in
The individual growth regulator of BAP contributed mostly to the shoot regeneration in edible bamboo, and the combined growth regulators of kinetin and BAP imposed shoot regeneration in edible bamboo (Hariyadi and Purwanti 2017). The single regulator of IBA and the comprehensive growth regulator of IBA, coumarin, and sucrose conducted more root regeneration in edible bamboo (Goyal et al. 2015).
The adoption of a plant in soil compositions and atmospheric climatic factors is called acclimatization (Calleja-Cabrera et al. 2020). The adaptation and acclimatization of tissue-cultured plants are performed in protected cultivation (Espinosa-Leal et al. 2018). Tissue-cultured plants adapt to the soil texture with nutrient and climatic factors. The plants grow well with the incorporation of water and mineral influx (Sathiyavani et al. 2017). Several mixtures, such as cocopeat, vermicompost, perlite, cow dung, FYM, compost, soil, and garden soil can be applied to the soil, and the soil mixtures are continuously transported into the tissue-cultured plants for nutrient enrichment and growth enhancement (Krishnapillai et al. 2020).
Chemical mixture have been recommended with variable concentrations in bamboo species for adaptation in protected cultivation. Possible concentrations of organic and inorganic chemicals can be applied to the soil for the acclimatization or adaptation of bamboo species are shown in Table 2 (Azeez and Orege 2018; Kaushal et al. 2020; Kranz et al. 2020; Lin et al. 2019; Rajput et al. 2019; Zubrod et al. 2019). The concentrations of chemicals enhance the duration of acclimatization and adaptation in bamboo species (do Vale et al. 2019; Fan et al. 2021). The chemically enriched soil water is transported in the bamboo species for natural adaptation in the relevant time duration (Hussain and Abbasi 2018).
Developed plantlet of
Natural hardening materials such as cocopeat, vermicompost, perlite, cow dung, FYM, compost, soil, and garden soil were recommended for the acclimatization and adaptation of the
Well-developed plantlets were shifted into a container containing cocopeat in a laboratory for 25–30 days for the primary stage of hardening. The initially acclimated plantlets were shifted to a net house for the secondary stage of hardening for 1–2 months. The cocopeat had a water storage capacity and a nutrient transport capacity. The cocopeat maintained the survival rate and metabolism in the plants. The microclimate sustained the growth, development, and metabolism in the plants during the primary stage of hardening. The developing plantlets received high-intensity climatic factors in protected cultivation for creating juvenile-to-field trial plants (Wang et al. 2020c). Regenerated plantlets of
The hardening constituents of humus soil, perlite, and FYM were utilized in the acclimatization and adaptation of the
Bamboo is a natural resource that controls soil and environmental factors. It provides shelter to animals and humans and maintains ecology and the ecosystem. Bamboo regulates gas compositions, the atmospheric cycle, and the environment of the ecosystem. It regulates the carbon cycle and metabolism in the system. It sequesters variable carbon concentrations from the surroundings and maintains carbon concentration points through the carbon cycle (Abebe et al. 2021). Bamboo conducts the carbon cycle metabolism for stabilizing carbon concentrations and the soil environment through the carbon cycle and biomass (Kang et al. 2022). Bamboo maintains the industrial economic value and natural resources from disaster. It forbids land degradation and types of soil erosion, and it provide resources in industries for revenue generation (Manandhar et al. 2019).
Bamboo biomass is contributes to charcoal wood and biochar formation through the gasification process (Sahoo et al. 2021a). The released gas of bamboo has much less ash, alkali, nitrogen, and sulfur content (Parthasarathy et al. 2021). The stored heat energy of bamboo is higher than agricultural residues, grasses, and straw (Sadiku et al. 2016). The net calorific value range of bamboo is 18.3–19.7 MJ/kg, higher than wood species such as beech, spruce, eucalyptus, and poplars (Choudhary et al. 2013). Bamboo is utilized for manufacturing value in addition to product formation. The exploitation of resources is rising in the bamboo sector. The climatic factors and metabolism destabilize the environment (Ingram and Tieguhong 2013). Biotechnological tools have widely been used for the regeneration of species of bamboo, for germplasm conservation, and for environment reformation (Ye et al. 2017). Several research projects have evaluated the carbon sink efficiency and carbon storage in species of bamboo for mobilizing its economic and environmental value (Chu and Liu 2021). Bamboo sequesters 17 tonnes per ha per year of carbon and assimilates 2.5–3 giga tonnes of carbon dioxide per year from the surroundings (Seethalakshmi et al. 2009). Variable climatic factors such as carbon, temperature, and the soil environment are regulated by species of bamboo (Kothandaraman et al. 2020). The carbon sequestration levels of 29.96 mg/ha by soil layer and 18.96 mg/ha by atmosphere were assimilated by
The carbon sequestration levels of 50.44 t/ha by above-ground parts (culms, branches, and leaves), 2.52 t/ha by below-ground parts were assimilated by 5-year-old
The carbon sequestration of 83.84 t/ha was assimilated by the 7 years old
The carbon sequestration of 22.10 mg/ha/year by above-ground parts, 4.85 mg/ha/year by below-ground parts and 53.25 mg/ha/year by soil strata were trapped by the
The carbon assimilation of 7 mg/ha/year was obtained by
Carbon sequestration and carbon storage are involved in various species of bamboo. The species of bamboo harness carbon with the involvement of carbon cycle; also maintain the soil and temperature of the surrounding with the interference of the cycle (Hatfield and Dold 2019; Kumari and Bhardwaj 2017). The species of bamboo positively impacts several factors for maintaining the environment ecosystem i.e., Soil, Carbon and Temperature.
Species of bamboo maintains an edaphic factor within soil layers. Species of bamboo forbid land degradation of 6 m2 and maintain the habitat and biogeochemical cycle of the soil layer. Bamboo improves the physical and chemical properties of the soil (Manpoong and Tripathi 2019). Bamboo species reform the nutrients and properties in poor soil. Bamboo species grow well in acidic soil with low base saturation and in gravel content soil, where it reduces alkaline in shallow, calcareous soil with gravel content. It recovers clay content, total nitrogen, and soil organic matter and has a cation exchange capacity, including microbial diversity in the soil (Manpoong et al. 2020). Species of bamboo assimilate more NPK nutrient content in the upper soil horizon than in the lower soil horizon. Average nitrogen assimilation rates of 333.77 kg/ha, 332.20 kg/ha, 319.25 kg/ha, 319.45 kg/ha, 331.47 kg/ha, 324.30 kg/ha, and 315.87 kg/ha were managed by
Anthropogenic activity disturbs the environmental system and raises carbon concentrations in the environment. Carbon availability is nearly three times more than the above-ground parts and two times more than the atmospheric carbon. The carbon emission from soil is 7–9 times more than anthropogenic activity carbon (Wang et al. 2020b). The carbon rate of emission per year is 4.3%, which is higher than China’s rate (Vashum and Jayakumar 2012). The carbon storage of the above-ground terrestrial habitat is about 86%, and soil stores 73% of carbon of the earth (Partey et al. 2017). Bamboo is an imperative agroforestry tree that improves soil fertility and nutrient cycling. The prevalence of bamboo is one-quarter in tropical regions and one-fifth in subtropical regions (Yiping et al. 2010). Bamboo is also involved in combating climate change through various processes, such as carbon sequestration through improving the soil carbon stock (Manpoong et al. 2021). Bamboo contributes to the stabilization of carbon concentrations in the soil and the environment of temperate regions and tropical regions. Species of bamboo sink more carbon content during the vegetative growth phase (Yiping et al. 2010), sequestering carbon from both above-ground and below-ground parts.
Humans destruct forest populations for fulfilling desired resources. The destruction of forests impacts global warming, rainfall, and temperature. It creates high temperatures and less rainfall in the environment. Rising temperatures impact the growth and yield of bamboo (Lawrence et al. 2022). Forest loss mitigates the carbon cycle and increases the carbon content in the environment. It impacts the albedo, evapotranspiration, and canopy roughness of plants. Deforestation causes a transition in light intensity and temperature. It raises the humidity in the environment and mitigates aeration in the surroundings. The concentration of nitrogen oxide raise the quantities of methane and lead in the atmosphere. The concentrations of ozone and methane affect the biochemical cycle (Tian et al. 2015).
Bamboo is an imperative forest resource for mitigating climatic factor transition and ecological balance. The reforestation of bamboo species balances the ecology and the ecosystem. Species of bamboo decline soil erosion by 75%. They maintain climatic factors by two-fold in montane temperatures and pine plantations or by six-fold in tropical deciduous forests.
The propagation of bamboo, in general, and that of tissue cultures in particular, has certain limitations compared to other crops (Singh et al. 2013). Propagation via seed is limited because of long flowering cycles (up to 120 year), seed sterility, and low seed vigor. The irregular appearance of flowers in monocarpic plants because of floral anthesis before culm death and extensive polyploidy levels are major challenges in woody plants. Vegetative propagation by cuttings, offsets and rhizomes is also inadequate to cope with the demand for planting stock due to large propagule size, limited availability, seasonal dependence, low multiplication rate, and low rooting percentage. Woody bamboo takes a long time (100 years) to flower, and the flowering time of bamboo cannot be predicted for each generation. Investigation is required in the study of the bamboo flowering mechanism and selective breeding (Lata et al. 2012). Higher levels of contaminations, variability in the sprouting of buds, insufficient multiplication rates, and difficulty in rooting are found in bamboo tissue cultures. The development of competent calluses, the long-term maintenance of competent calluses, and the efficiency of plantlet regeneration are prime issues of bamboo tissue cultures (Muralidharan 2009). Regenerated bamboo plantlets are acclimatized in a protected cultivation and laboratory room with soil-led chemical mixtures for 3–5 months, but the acclimatized plantlets are incompetent for field trials for crop improvement (Xu et al. 2017b).
The raw materials of bamboo are involved in the production of laminated boards, furniture, bamboo ply, roofing sheets, fencing, flooring, food, charcoal, vinegar, beverages, natural pesticides, toiletries, house-made handicrafts, construction work, furniture, utensils, fiber, and paper. The young shoots are used in preparing value-added products for consumption purposes, and the young leaves are consumed by animals. The fibrous sheaths are chopped into pieces and are consumed in fish and meat curries, soups, and pickles.
The aerial shoots of bamboo are enriched with a high protein content, with less fat content, moderate dietary fiber, amino acids, selenium, potassium, antioxidants, and minerals for a healthy heart. Young bamboo shoots are applied in the preparation of fermented shoots, pickles, bamboo beer, bamboo cookies, soft drinks, bamboo wine, and canned products around the world. The shoots contain 18 amino acids and 96% moisture.
The raw materials of bamboo are applied in post-harvest product preparations such as bamboo extracts, bamboo salt, and bamboo vinegar, which controls diabetes and cholesterol levels. Secondary metabolites are extracted from the aerial shoots for the treatment of hypertension, sweating, and paralysis, as well as their antioxidant activities and anti-inflammatory effects. The morphological portions of
The morphological portion of the plant possess silica, choline, betaine, cyanogenetic glycosides, albuminoids, oxalic acid, reducing sugars, resins, waxes, benzoic acid, arginine, cysteine, histidine, niacin, riboflavin, thiamine, protein, gluteline, lysine, methionine, a proteolytic enzyme, nuclease, and urease. The beneficial organic molecules such as oxalic acid, reducing sugars, resins, waxes, hydrocyanic acid (HCN), and benzoic acid are developed with the incorporation of the metabolism. Several amino acids, such as arginine, cysteine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylamine, threonine, valine, tyrosine, niacin, riboflavin, and thiamine, are synthesized in the shoot system for structural building. The leaf generates glutamine, lysine, methionine, betaine, choline, a proteolytic enzyme, nuclease, and urease for the system activities (Hossain et al. 2015).
Specific growth regulator interactions are involved in both the direct and indirect regeneration in major bamboo species. The concentrations of growth regulators influence callus induction and regeneration in bamboo species with the incorporation of tissue culture methods. The tissue-culturing of bamboo plants involves the restoration of forest resources and maintaining edaphic and climatic factors. Tissue-cultured bamboo species conserve germplasm, sink carbon, and stabilize climatic factors. A suitable hardening mixture involves the acclimatization and adaptation of a bamboo species with a relevant duration for new plant development. The development of bamboo species can sustainably transform the environment and the biogeochemical cycle.
The author acknowledges that the information was compiled with the help of the articles published in the referred journals.
AS and CM conceptualized the research. AS prepared first draft of the manuscript. CM, AG, HP, GP, and HA revised and finalized the manuscript. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.
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