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Fig. 4. Total and average (Ave) number of species of vascular plants over 5 years in the study sites, Ganzhuer of Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia. The vertical bars above graphs indicate the standard deviation and the alphabets above the bars represent the statistical difference among the sites. NR: not restored; R: restored; Ref-E: reference ecosystem.
J Ecol Environ 2023;47:-
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