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Fig. 4. Boxplots depicting the (A) patch area and (B) patch height of Cassiope tetragona (n = 116), Dryas octopetala (n = 94), and Silene acaulis (n = 206) patches. Different letters (superscript a and b) mean statistical differences (p < 0.05), as determined by a parametric unbalanced ANOVA using Welch’s F ratio. The significance of differences (p < 0.05) between the means of three communities were assessed using Games–Howell honest significant difference for post hoc comparisons. The central horizontal lines within the boxes indicate the medians; the box edges indicate the quartiles; the whiskers indicate the minimum and maximum values; and the open circles indicate outliers. C.te: Cassiope tetragona; D.oc: Dryas octopetala; Silene acaulis.
J Ecol Environ 2023;47:-
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