Table. 1.

List of potential risky exotic 45 fish species designated by the Ministry of Environment, Korea in case of a successful entry or introduction to the Korean aquatic ecosystems

Family Scientific name Common name Native range Aquatic biomes Feeding niche Status in Korea Threats to humans
Acheilognathidae Channa striata Striped snakehead Pakistan, Thailand, and South China Ponds, streams, and rivers Fish, snakes, frogs, insects, earthworms, and tadpoles Introduced (reasons unknown), not established Potential pest
Amiidae Neogobius melanostomus Round goby Europe and Asia Estuaries, lagoons, lakes, large rivers Mollusks, crustaceans, worms, fish
eggs, small fish, and insect larvae
Not present Potential pest
Catostomidae Perca fluviatilis European perch Eurasia Estuarine lagoons and lakes Planktonic invertebrates Not present Potential pest
Clarias gariepinus North african catfish Africa, Europe, and Asia Stagnant waters, lakes, and pools Nocturnal, insects, plankton,
invertebrates, and fish
Not present Potential pest
Piaractus brachypomus Red-bellid pacu South America Rivers Insects and decaying plants.
Opportunistic feeder on fish, zooplankton, and crustaceans
Not present Traumatogenic
Centrarchidae Pygocentrus nattereri Piranha South America Creeks and interconnected ponds Insects, worms, and fish Not present Traumatogenic
Atractosteus spatula Alligator
North America Large rivers, swamps, bayous, and lakes Blue crabs, turtles, waterfowl or other birds and small mammals Not present Harmless
Phractocephalus hemioliopterus Redtail
South America Rivers Fish, crabs, and fruits Not present Harmless
Maccullochella peelii Murray cod Oceania Streams and rivers Invertebrates, fish, amphibians. Occasionally reptiles, birds, and
aquatic mammals
Not present Harmless
Channidae Alosa sapidissima American shad North America Marine; freshwater; brackish, anadromous Plankton, copepods, and mysids. Occasionally small fish Not present Harmless
Clariidae Alosa pseudoharengus Alewife North America Coastal rivers, lakes, and streams Shrimps and small fishes; diatoms, copepods, and ostracods Not present Harmless
Clupeidae Sander lucioperca Zander Europe and Asia Large and turbid rivers, eutrophic lakes, brackish coastal lakes, and estuaries Carnivorous, piscivorous, cannibalistic Not present Harmless
Amia calva Bowfin North America Swamps, sloughs, lakes, and pools
and streams
Fishes, frogs, crayfish, insects, and
Not present Potential pest
Cobitidae Ictiobus cyprinellus Bigmouth buffalo North America Large rivers, lakes, and impoundments Cladocera and cyclopoid copepods Not present Harmless
Ictiobus niger Black
North America Impoundments, lakes, and rivers Asiatic clam, algae, diatoms, and crustaceans Not present Harmless
Cyprinidae Labeo rohita Roho
Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, and Nepal Rivers, streams, and lakes Plants Not present Harmless
Esocidae Lepomis cyanellus Green
North America Streams, lakes, and ponds Insects and microcrustaceans Introduced (unknown reasons), Established Harmless
Lepomis megalotis Longear sunfish North America Small lakes, ponds, rivers, and
Invertebrates, insects, and occasionally small fishes Not present Harmless
Gasterosteidae Micropterus punctulatus Spotted bass North America Streams, lakes, and reservoirs Insects, larger crustaceans, frogs, worms, grubs, and small fish Not present Harmless
Gobiidae Misgurnus fossilis Weatherfish Europe and Asia Slow-flowing rivers Insect larvae and small mollusks Not present Harmless
Gobionidae Mylopharyngodon piceus Black carp Southern China, Vietnam, Russia, Europe Rivers and lakes Mollusks Not present Potential pest
Paramisgurnus dabryanus Longfin
China and Russia; Taiwan Rivers and streams Insect larvae, small crustaceans Not present Harmless
Ictaluridae Perccottus glenii Chinese sleeper China Lakes, ponds, backwaters, and marshes Wide variety of invertebrates, tadpoles, and fish Not present Potential pest
Petromyzon marinus Sea lamprey Northeast and western Atlantic Shallow coastal areas, anadromous Parasitic on large fish species Not present Harmless
Pylodictis olivaris Flathead catfish North America Small to large rivers Crayfish, clams, and fishes Not present Harmless
Lepisosteidae Salmo salar Atlantic salmon Atlantic Ocean and North America Ocean, small to large rivers and
Squids, shrimps, and fish Not present Harmless
Leuciscidae Silurus glanis Wels catfish Europe and Asia Lakes and rivers Invertebrates and fish Not present Potential pest
Ameiurus nebulosus Brown bullhead North America Creeks and small to large rivers Mollusks, insects, leeches, crayfish and plankton, worms, algae, plant material, fishes Not present Potential pest
Moronidae Ameiurus melas Black bullhead North America Creeks and small to large rivers Clams, snails, plant material, and fishes Not present Potential pest
Morone americana White perch North America Fresh, brackish, and coastal waters Rotifers, copepods, and Cladocerns Not present Harmless
Odontobutidae Micropterus dolomites Smallmouth bass North America Lakes and rivers Crayfish, native fishes, and aquatic
Introduced to fill the ecological niche, Not established Potential pest
Percichthyid Morone chrysops White bass North America Small to large rivers Piscivorous, insects, crustaceans, zooplankton Not present Harmless
Percidae Scardinius erythrophthalmus Common rudd Eurasia Lowland rivers, backwaters, oxbows, ponds, and lakes Plankton, terrestrial insects, and plant material Not present Potential pest
Acheilognathus tabira erythropterus Red tabira bitterling Japan Rivers, creeks, lakes, and ponds in plains Native plants Not present Harmless
Petromyzontidae Aspius aspius Asp Europe and Asia Lowland rivers and large lakes Piscivorous Not present Harmless
Pimelodidae Biwia zezera Zezera Japan Rivers and large lakes Epiphytic algae, zooplankton, and zoobenthos Not present Harmless
Poeciliidae Gnathopogon elongatus elongatus Field Gudgeon Japan Rivers, lakes, and ponds No data available Not present Harmless
Salmonidae Ictiobus bubalus Smallmouth buffalo North America Small to large rivers, lakes Shellfish and algae Not present Harmless
Ischikauia steenackeri Wataka Japan Lakes, ponds, and swamps with reed No data available Not present Harmless
Siluridae Siniperca chuatsi Mandarin
China, Vietnam, Russia Rivers with dense vegetation Small-bodied fishes, shrimps, and other aquatic animals Not present Harmless
Serrasalmidae Gasterosteus microcephalus Small head stickleback Japan; North America Small streams Aquatic insects and other invertebrates Not present Harmless
Esox niger Chain pickerel North America Vegetated lakes, swamps, creeks, and small to medium rivers Fish, frogs, snakes, insects, and small mammals Not present Harmless
Sinipercidae Oncorhynchus masou rhodurus Biwa trout Japan Lakes and rivers Plankton, insects, prawns, small fish,
and small mammals
Not present Harmless
Xenocyprididae Gambusia affinis Mosquito
North and Central America Streams, rivers, and lakes Generalists, larvivorous, zooplankton, detritus Not present Potential pest
Esox lucius Northern
North America, Eurasia, Central Asia Vegetated lakes, pools, creeks, and large rivers Carnivorous: feeds on smaller fishes, frogs, crayfish, small mammals, and birds Not present Potential pest

Data source: Fish base, ADW, CABI and USFSW. ADW, Animal Diversity Web; CABI, Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International; USFSW, United States Fish and Wildlife Service

J Ecol Environ 2022;46:-
© J Ecol Environ