Table. 1.

Some floral plant and their volatile organic compounds that elicit response in bees

Volatile organic compounds Plant source Bee species References
2-phenylethanol (18)B;
4-oxoisophorone (44)C;
(3E,6E)-α-farnesene (45)T;
(6Z,9Z)-heptadecadiene (28)F;
(8Z)-heptadecene (29)F;
Nonanal (30)F
Actinidia deliciosa (kiwifruit) Honeybees
(Apise mellifera)
Tatsuka et al. 1990; Twidle et al. 2015
α-farnesene (41)T;
p-anisaldehyde (42)B;
Acetophenone (43)B;
Phenylacetaldehyde (40)B
Brassica rapa Bumble bee
(Bombus terrestris L.)
Knauer and Schiestl 2015
β-ocimene (1)T;
(E,E)-α-farnesene (45)T;
1H-indole (38)N;
2-phenylethyl acetate (12)B;
2-phenylethanol (18)B;
6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone (31)F;
Benzaldehyde (23)B;
Linalool (2)T;
Phenylacetaldehyde (40)B
Brassica spp. Honeybees
(Apise mellifera)
Kobayashi et al. 2012
1,6-dioxaspiro[4.5]decane (33)S;
E-7-methyl-1,6-dioxaspiro[4.5]decane (34)S;
E-2-methyl-1,7-dioxaspiro[5.5]undecane (35)S;
E-7-ethyl-1,6-dioxaspiro[4.5]decane (36)S
Campanula trachelium Campanula-specialist bee (Chelostoma rapunculi) Milet-Pinheiro et al. 2013
1-octanol (19)F;
2-phenylethanol (18)B
Campomanesia phaea Nocturnal bees (Megalopta spp.; Ptiloglossa spp.) Cordeiro et al. 2017
p-anisaldehyde (42)B;
Benzaldehyde (23)B;
Phenylacetaldehyde (40)B
Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle) Honeybees and
Theis 2006
1,2,4-trimethoxybenzene (46)B Cucurbita spp. Peponapis pruinosa (North American squash bee) Andrews et al. 2007
β-ocimene (1)T;
β-pinene (11)T;
Linalool (2)T
Gongora spp. Orchid bees (Euglossini) Hetherington-Rauth and Ramírez 2016
p-methoxyanisole (24)B Hydrocleys martii (aquatic plants) Oligolectic bees
(Protodiscelis palpalis)
Carvalho et al. 2014
Benzyl acetate (13)B Masdevallia lehmannii Euglossine bees Gerlach and Schill 1991
2-tridecanone (25)F;
Diacetin (27)G;
Heptanoic acid (26)F
Lysimachia spp. Macropis fulvipes
(Oil-collecting bees)
Schäffler et al. 2015
cis-3-hexenyl acetate (32)F;
Linalool (2)T;
Methyl salicylate (16)B;
Medicago sativa
(Apise mellifera)
Henning and Teuber 1992
E,E-farnesol (3)T;
E,E-farnesyl hexanoate (9)T;
Nonanoic acid (10)T
Ophrys sphegodes (spider-orchid) Solitary bee
(Andrena nigroaenea)
Ayasse et al. 2000; Schiestl and Ayasse 2001
β-ocimene (1)T;
Linalool (2)T
Paullinia cupana (guarana) Nocturnal bee
(Megalopta spp.)
Krug et al. 2018
Protoanemonin (39)L Ranunculus spp. Chelostoma bees Dobson and Bergström 2000
β-ocimene (1)T;
2-phenylethyl acetate (12)B;
2-phenylethanol (18)B;
Methyl 2-methoxybenzoate (47)B;
Methyl 4-methoxybenzoate (48)B;
Methyl nicotinate (38)N
Raphanus sativus (radish) Honeybees
(Apise mellifera)
Kobayashi et al. 2012
1,4-dimethoxybenzene (24)B Salix spp. Oligolectic bee
(Andrena vaga)
Tollsten and Knudsen 1992; Dötterl et al. 2005
β-pinene (11)T;
Limonene (49)T
Salvia spp. Lasioglossum spp.;
Xylocopa violacea
Giuliani et al. 2020
1,8-cineole (20)T;
2-phenylethyl acetate (12)B;
Benzyl acetate (13)B;
p-cresol (50)B;
p-cresyl acetate (51)B;
Methyl benzoate (14)B;
Methyl cinnamate (15)B;
Methyl salicylate (16)B;
Vanillin (17)B
Stanhopeinae spp. Orchid bees (Euglossini) Williams and Whitten 1983
Anethole (52)B Synthetic compounds Honeybees
(Apise mellifera)
Allsopp and Cherry 1991
Benzyl acetate (13)B;
Eucalyptol (20)T;
Eugenol (21)B;
Methyl salicylate (16)B;
Skatole (22)B;
Vanillin (17)B
Synthetic compounds Nocturnal bee
(Megalopta aegis; Megalopta amoena; Megalopta guimaraesi)
Knoll and Santos 2012
(E,E)-farnesol (3)T;
(Z)-citral (4)T;
Geranic acid (5)T;
Geraniol (6)T;
Nerol (7)T;
Nerolic acid (8)T
Synthetic compounds Honeybees
(Apise mellifera)
Williams et al. 1981

Structure numberings are in parenthesis. Class of compounds are also represented by letter in superscript: B, benzenoids; C, cyclohexenones; F, volatile fatty acid derivatives; L, lactone; N, nitrogen containing compounds; S, spiroacetals; T, terpenoids

J Ecol Environ 2022;46:-
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